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Found 88 results

  1. until
    Pituitary Patient Support Group Saturday March 24, 2018 Pejman Cohan, MD 10:00am - 11:45am Daniel F. Kelly, MD 11:45am - 12:45pm Lunch 1:00pm - 2:00pm Family and friends welcome Please RSVP to Sharmyn Mcgraw pituitarybuddy@hotmail.com
  2. MaryO

    Rare Disease Day

    What am I doing for Rare Disease Day? For me, it's more that one day out of the year. Each and every day since 1987, I tell anyone who will listen about Cushing’s. I pass out a LOT Cushing’s business cards and brochures. Adding to websites, blogs and more that I have maintained continuously since 2000 - at mostly my own expense. Posting on the Cushing's Help message boards about Rare Disease Day. I post there most every day. Tweeting/retweeting info about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day today. Adding info to one of my blogs about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day. Adding new and Golden Oldies bios to another blog, again most every day. Thinking about getting the next Cushing’s Awareness Blogging Challenge set up for April...and will anyone else participate? And updating https://www.facebook.com/CushingsInfo with a bunch of info today (and every day!) ~~~ Why am I so passionate about Rare Disease Day? I had Cushing's Disease due to a pituitary tumor. I was told to diet, told to take antidepressants and told that it was all my fault that I was so fat. My pituitary surgery in 1987 was a "success" but I still deal with the aftereffects of Cushing's and of the surgery itself. I also had another Rare Disease - Kidney Cancer, rare in younger, non-smoking women. And then, there's the adrenal insufficiency... And growth hormone deficiency... If you're interested, you can read my bio here https://cushingsbios.com/2013/04/29/maryo-pituitary-bio/ HOME | Sitemap | Adrenal Crisis! | Abbreviations | Glossary | Forums | Donate | Bios | Add Your Bio | Add Your Doctor | MemberMap | CushieWiki
  3. The chemotherapy temozolomide partially improved a case of an aggressive pituitary tumor that caused symptoms of Cushing’s disease (CD), according to a new study in Poland. However, after tumor mass and cortisol levels were stabilized for a few months, the patient experienced rapid progression, suggesting that new methods for extending the effects of temozolomide are needed. The study, “Temozolomide therapy for aggressive pituitary Crooke’s cells corticotropinoma causing Cushing’s Disease: A case report with literature review,” appeared in the journal Endokrynologia Polska. Aggressive pituitary tumors are usually invasive macroadenomas, or benign tumors larger than 10 mm. A very rare subset of pituitary adenoma — particularly corticotropinoma, or tumors with excessive secretion of corticotropin (ACTH) — exhibit Crooke’s cells. These tumors are highly invasive, have a high recurrence rate, and are often resistant to treatment. Information is not widely available about the effectiveness of treating aggressive pituitary tumors, particularly those that cause Cushing’s disease. The management of these tumors usually requires neurosurgery, followed by radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. However, the chemotherapy medication temozolomide has been increasingly used as a first-line treatment after initial evidence of its effectiveness in treating glioblastoma, the most common form of brain cancer. In this study, researchers at the Jagiellonian University, in Poland, discussed the case of a 61-year-old man with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome caused by Crooke’s cell corticotropinoma. The patient first presented with symptoms of severe hypercorticoidism — the excessive secretion of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex — in December 2011. He also showed advanced heart failure, severe headaches, and impaired vision, which had started two or three years before diagnosis. Examinations revealed osteoporosis and a fracture in the Th5 vertebra. His morning ACTH levels were high. The same was observed for mean cortisol levels even after dexamethasone treatment, which was suggestive of a pituitary tumor secreting ACTH. MRIs showed the existence of a tumor mass, later identified as a macroadenoma with high cell polymorphism, the presence of Crooke’s cells, and ACTH secretion. The patient was referred for transsphenoidal nonradical neurosurgery, performed through the nose and the sphenoid sinus, and bilateral adrenalectomy, or the surgical removal of the adrenal glands, in 2012-2013. However, he developed fast, postoperative recurrence of hypercorticoidism and tumor regrowth. This led to three additional transsphenoidal neurosurgeries and radiotherapy. The patient’s clinical status worsened as he developed severe cardiac insufficiency. Doctors began temozolomide treatment in April 2015, which did not result in adverse effects throughout treatment. The initial standard dose (150–200 mg/m2) was given once daily in the morning for five consecutive days, in a 28-day cycle. The patient also received 600 mg of ketoconazole, an antifungal medication. Ondansetron was administered to prevent nausea and vomiting. Subsequent examinations revealed clinical and biochemical improvements, including a reduction in ACTH and cortisol levels. In addition, the patient also showed reduced cardiac insufficiency, less frequent and less severe headaches, visual field improvements, and better physical fitness and mood. However, clinical symptoms worsened after the eighth temozolomide cycle. The tumor size also suddenly increased after the ninth cycle, reaching the inner ear. Temozolomide was then discontinued and ACTH levels increased by 28 percent one month later. The patient also demonstrated deteriorated vision, hearing loss, and strong headaches. Clinicians then decided to start treatment with the Cushing’s disease therapy Signifor (pasireotide), but a worsening of diabetes was observed, and the patient died in February 2016. “The most probable reason for death was compression of the brainstem, which had been observed in the last MRI of the pituitary,” the researchers wrote, adding that “due to the very short duration of treatment, any conclusions on the treatment with Signifor cannot be drawn.” Overall, “the results of the presented case suggest that [temozolomide] treatment monotherapy could have only partial response in aggressive corticotroph adenoma causing Cushing’s disease, followed by sudden progression,” the investigators wrote. This contrasts with mostly responsive cases reported in research literature, they noted. “Therefore, further research on the factors of responsiveness and on novel methods to extend the duration of the effect of [temozolomide] should be carried out,” they wrote. From https://cushieblog.com/2018/02/10/temozolomide-may-partially-improve-aggressive-pituitary-tumors-causing-cushings-disease/
  4. Patients with different subtypes of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) have distinct plasma steroid profiles. This could be used as a test for diagnosis and classification, a German study says. The study, “Plasma Steroid Metabolome for Diagnosis and Subtyping Patients with Cushing Syndrome,” appeared in the journal Clinical Chemistry. A quick diagnosis of CS is crucial so that doctors can promptly give therapy. However, diagnosing CS is often complicated by the multiple tests necessary not just to diagnose the disease but also to determine its particular subtype. Cortisol, which leads to CS when produced at high levels, is a steroid hormone. But while earlier studies were conducted to determine whether patients with different subtypes of CS had distinct steroid profiles, the methods researchers used were cumbersome and have been discontinued for routine use. Recently, a technique called LC-MS/MS has emerged for multi-steroid profiling in patients with adrenocortical dysfunction such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal insufficiency and primary aldosteronism. Researchers at Germany’s Technische Universität in Dresden used that method to determine whether patients with the three main subtypes of CS (pituitary, ectopic and adrenal) showed differences in plasma steroid profiles. They measured levels of 15 steroids produced by the adrenal glands in single plasma samples collected from 84 patients with confirmed CS and 227 age-matched controls. They found that CS patients saw huge increases in the plasma steroid levels of 11-deoxycortisol (289%), 21-deoxycortisol (150%), 11-deoxycorticosterone (133%), corticosterone (124%) and cortisol (122%), compared to patients without the disease. Patients with the ectopic subtype had the biggest jumps in levels of these steroids. However, plasma 18-oxocortisol levels were particularly low in ectopic disease. Other steroids demonstrated considerable variation. Patients with the adrenal subtype had the lowest concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-SO4, which are androgens. Patients with the ectopic and pituitary subtype had the lowest concentration of aldosterone. Through the use of 10 selected steroids, patients with different subtypes of CS could be identified almost as closely as with other tests, including the salivary and urinary free cortisol test, the dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol test, and plasma adrenocorticotropin levels. The misclassification rate using steroid levels was 9.5 percent, compared to 5.8 percent in other tests. “This study using simultaneous LC-MS/MS measurements of 15 adrenal steroids in plasma establishes distinct steroid metabolome profiles that might be useful as a test for CS,” the team concluded, adding that using LC-MS/MS is advantageous, as specimen preparation is simple and the entire panel takes 12 minutes to run. This means it could be offered as a single test for both identification and subtype classification. From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/01/02/plasma-steroid-levels-used-screen-diagnosis-subtyping-patients-cushing-syndrome/
  5. Addison’s disease: Hyperpigmentation is a classic symptom of Addison’s disease, an endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands fails to produce steroid hormone. The disease causes darkening of the skin in certain areas. Cushing’s syndrome: The abnormal amount of cortisol in the human body causes a condition known as the Cushing’s syndrome. And one of the symptoms of the disorder is hyperpigmentation of the skin. Adapted from http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/health-conditions-that-can-cause-hyperpigmentation/
  6. All patients who undergo removal of one adrenal gland due to Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or adrenal incidentaloma (AI, adrenal tumors discovered incidentally) should receive a steroid substitutive therapy, a new study shows. The study, “Predictability of hypoadrenalism occurrence and duration after adrenalectomy for ACTH‐independent hypercortisolism,” was published in the Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. CS is a rare disease, but subclinical hypercortisolism, an asymptomatic condition characterized by mild cortisol excess, has a much higher prevalence. In fact, subclinical hypercortisolism, is present in up to 20 percent of patients with AI. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is composed of the hypothalamus, which releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) that acts on the pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), that in turn acts on the adrenal gland to release cortisol. To avoid excess cortisol production, high cortisol levels tell the hypothalamus and the pituitary to stop producing CRH and ACTH, respectively. Therefore, as CS and AI are characterized by high levels of cortisol, there is suppression of the HPA axis. As the adrenal gland is responsible for the production of cortisol, patients might need steroid substitutive therapy after surgical removal of AI. Indeed, because of HPA axis suppression, some patients have low cortisol levels after such surgeries – clinically known as post-surgical hypocortisolism (PSH), which can be damaging to the patient. While some researchers suggest that steroid replacement therapy should be given only to some patients, others recommend it should be given to all who undergo adrenalectomy (surgical removal of the adrenal gland). Some studies have shown that the severity of hypercortisolism, as well as the degree of HPA axis suppression and treatment with ketoconazole pre-surgery in CS patients, are associated with a longer duration of PSH. Until now, however, there have been only a few studies to guide in predicting the occurrence and duration of PSH. Therefore, researchers conducted a study to determine whether HPA axis activity, determined by levels of ACTH and cortisol, could predict the occurrence and duration of PSH in patients who undergo an adrenalectomy. Researchers studied 80 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for either CS or AI. Prior to the surgery, researchers measured levels of ACTH, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg-DST). After the surgery, all patients were placed on steroid replacement therapy and PSH was determined after two months. For those with PSH, levels of cortisol were determined every six months for at least four years. Results showed that PSH occurred in 82.4 percent of CS patients and 46 percent of AI patients. PSH lasted for longer than 18 months in 50 percent of CS and 30 percent of AI patients. Furthermore, it lasted longer than 36 months for 35.7 percent of CS patients. In all patients, PSH was predicted by pre-surgery cortisol levels after the 1 mg-DST, but with less than 70 percent accuracy. In AI patients, a shorter-than-12-month duration of PSH was not predicted by any HPA parameter, but was significantly predicted by an absence of pre-surgery diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism. So, this study did not find any parameters that could significantly predict with high sensitivity and specificity the development or duration of PSH in all patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Consequently, the authors concluded that “the PSH occurrence and its duration are hardly predictable before surgery. All patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy should receive a steroid substitutive therapy.” From https://cushieblog.com/2017/12/14/patients-undergoing-adrenalectomy-should-receive-steroid-substitutive-therapy/
  7. until
    Presented by Kenneth M. De Los Reyes MD, MSc Assistant Professor Co-director of Skull Base Surgery Director of Quality Assurance Department of Neurosurgery Loma Linda University Medical Center Register Now! After registering you will receive a confirmation email with details about joining the webinar. Contact us at webinar@pituitary.org with any questions or suggestions. Date: Wednesday, December 13, 2017 Time: 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Pacific Standard Time 1:00 PM - 2:00 PM Eastern Standard Time Webinar Description Learning Objectives: Building Patient and Medical Provider Awareness To build awareness among patients and medical providers of early signs and symptoms of pituitary and pituitary related tumors To understand the consequences of delays in diagnosis of pituitary tumors To outline steps for patients and medical providers to take to prevent delays in diagnosis of pituitary tumors.
  8. Presented by Kenneth M. De Los Reyes MD, MSc Assistant Professor Co-director of Skull Base Surgery Director of Quality Assurance Department of Neurosurgery Loma Linda University Medical Center Register Now! After registering you will receive a confirmation email with details about joining the webinar. Contact us at webinar@pituitary.org with any questions or suggestions. Date: Wednesday, December 13, 2017 Time: 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Pacific Standard Time 1:00 PM - 2:00 PM Eastern Standard Time Webinar Description Learning Objectives: Building Patient and Medical Provider Awareness To build awareness among patients and medical providers of early signs and symptoms of pituitary and pituitary related tumors To understand the consequences of delays in diagnosis of pituitary tumors To outline steps for patients and medical providers to take to prevent delays in diagnosis of pituitary tumors.
  9. People with high cortisol levels have lower muscle mass and higher visceral fat deposits, putting them at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease, new research shows. High levels of cortisol can result from a variety of reasons, including Cushing’s disease and adrenal tumors. Most adrenal tumors are found to be non-functioning, meaning they do not produce excess hormones. However, up to 47 percent of patients have mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE). The study, “Impact of hypercortisolism on skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue mass in patients with adrenal adenomas,” was published in the journal Clinical Endocrinology. Long-term studies have shown that as a group, patients with MACE tend to have increased cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obesity, and high lipid levels, which are associated with higher cardiovascular death rates. Abdominal adiposity, which refers to fat deposits around the abdomen and stomach, and central sarcopenia, referring to loss of skeletal muscle mass, are both known to be linked to higher cardiovascular risk and increased mortality. Overt hypercortisolism is known to lead to increased visceral adiposity (body fat stored within the abdominal cavity) and muscle loss. However, little is known about the body composition of patients with adrenal adenomas and MACE. Therefore, researchers set out to determine whether central sarcopenia and adiposity are present in patients with MACE, and whether they can be markers of disease severity in patients with adrenal adenomas. To determine this, researchers used body composition measurements of 25 patients with Cushing’s disease, 48 patients with MACE, and 32 patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors (NFAT) using abdominal CTs. Specifically, researchers looked at visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal muscle mass. Visceral fat refers to fat around organs, and it is “deeper” than subcutaneous fat, which is closer to the skin. Results showed that, compared to patients with non-functional tumors, those with Cushing’s disease had a higher visceral to total (V/T) fat ratio but a lower visceral to subcutaneous (V/S) fat ratio. In MACE patients, however, both ratios were decreased compared to patients with non-functional tumors. Cushing’s disease patients also had 10 cm2 less total muscle mass, compared to patients with non-functional tumors. An overnight dexamethasone suppression test was conducted in these patients to determine levels of cortisol in the blood. The next morning, cortisol levels were checked. High levels of cortisol indicate the presence of a disease, such as MACE or Cushing’s disease. After administering the test, researchers determined that for an increase in cortisol in the morning, there was a correlating increase in the V/T ratio and the V/S fat ratio, and a decrease in the mean total muscle mass. Therefore, the higher the degree of hypercortisolism, the lower the muscle mass and the higher the visceral adiposity. These results could prove to be clinically useful as both visceral adiposity and low muscle mass are risk factors of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease. “Body composition measurement may provide an additive value in making a diagnosis of clinically important MACE and aid in individualizing management of patients with ACAs and MACE,” the researchers concluded. From https://cushieblog.com/2017/12/01/high-cortisol-levels-as-seen-in-cushings-can-lead-to-greater-risk-of-heart-disease-study-finds/
  10. ISRCTN71291784 DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN71291784 A study to investigate the prevalence of pituitary gland dysfunction and it's risk factors following traumatic brain injuries (TBI) Condition category Nervous System Diseases Date applied 28/08/2017 Date assigned 14/09/2017 Last edited 14/09/2017 Prospective/Retrospective Prospectively registered Overall trial status Ongoing Recruitment status Not yet recruiting Plain English Summary Background and study aims The number of patients that are hospitalised or that die as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is between 150 to 250 patients per 100,000 population per year. In Scotland this equates to 7,500 patients per year. Up to one third of these patients have long-term problems with their pituitary gland (a gland that regulations vital body function and hormones) function (also known as post TBI pituitary dysfunction or PTPD). This would make PTPD by far the commonest cause of hypopituitarism (when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough hormones). The pituitary gland sits at underneath the brain, where it is surrounded by bones of the skull base. It is therefore susceptible to damage during TBI as it may be injured by the surrounding bones. The pituitary gland is a key part of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is important for maintaining metabolism but also has key roles in regulating stress, energy, libido, bone and muscle strength. It also involved in regulating mental health and wellbeing. Pituitary hormone dysfunction is therefore a serious illness that can cause physical and neuropsychiatric disabilities that can affect the way people recover following TBI. PTPD can be reversed if diagnosed early treatment and an effective screening programme for diagnosing the patients most at risk could represent one of the most important interventions in the management of patient with TBI in the last few decades. The aim of this study is to investigate how common is pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Who can participate? Patients aged 17 and older who have a primary TBI. What does the study involve? Participants undergo blood tests to assess their pituitary gland function one week, within the first month, between three and six months and between six and 12 months after TBI. Participants are checked for their hormones levels at the first stage of the study. During this first stage, 20 participatns receive an MRI (a scan using magnetics) or their brain. During the follow up stages, participants also have tests to assess their levels of growth hormone deficiencies (GHD) and secondary hypoadrenaism (SH). During the third and fourth stages of follow up, participants are asked to fill out questionnaires to assess their recovery following a TBI. What are the possible benefits and risks of participating? Not provided at time of registration. Where is the study run from? 1. Western General Hospital (UK) 2. Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (UK) When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for? September 2016 to August 2020 Who is funding the study? Edinburgh and Lothians Health Foundation (UK) Who is the main contact? Dr John Emelifeonwu Trial website Contact information Type Public Primary contact Dr John Emelifeonwu ORCID ID Contact details Bramwell Dott Building Western General Hospital Crewe Road South Edinburgh EH4 2XU United Kingdom Additional identifiers EudraCT number ClinicalTrials.gov number Protocol/serial number 2017/0146 Study information Scientific title Pituitary gland deficiencies after traumatic brain injury: An Outcomes and Prevalence Study Acronym PitSTOP Study hypothesis Post- traumatic brain injury (anterior) pituitary gland dysfunction (PTPD) is common following traumatic brain injury and clinical and radiological factors at the time of trauma may predict the risk of developing long-term PTPD. Ethics approval South East Scotland Regional Ethics Committee 02, 18/07/2017, ref: 17/SS/0043 Study design Multi-centre cross-sectional longitudinal cohort study Primary study design Observational Secondary study design Cross sectional study Trial setting Hospitals Trial type Diagnostic Patient information sheet See additional fiels Condition Traumatic brain injury Intervention After informed consent, recruited participants have blood tests to assess the function of their brain. These tests are all performed between 8am and 10am and the patients have to be 'fasted' (nothing to eat from midnight the night before) before the blood test. The blood tests are performed at four stages during follow up: Stage 1. In the first week after Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Stage 2. Within the first month after TBI Stage 3. At six months after TBI Stage 4. At 12 months after TBI Baseline levels of the following hormones are checked at all 4 stages. These include tests for: cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, sodium, thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4), testosterone levels in men and oestrogen levels in premenopausal women who do not have a regular menstrual cycle. All of these blood tests can be performed using 3.5mLs (approximately half a tablespoon) of blood. Also, during the first stage, a subset of participants will also have an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their brain. These scans will be done at every stage of follow-up and will be done on the same day that the patients have their blood test. The MRI scans will be done to check whether there are any structural changes in the pituitary gland that can help predict likelihood of developing long-term PTPD. The MRI protocol lasts less than 30 minutes and will include the following sequences: T1-weighted 3-D volumetric sequences of the whole brain T2-weighted 2D sequences of the whole brain 3-D Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences of the whole brain T1-weighted and T2-weighted fine slices (2mm) of pituitary gland 30 direction diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with axial and sagittal sequences During the second, third and fourth stages of follow up, in addition to the baseline blood tests, participants also have stimulation tests for growth hormone deficiencies (GHD) and secondary hypoadrenaism (SH): 1. Stimulation test for GHD: GHRH + Arginine test is used to test for GHD. During this test, a dose of a hormone called growth hormone release hormone (GHRH) (1 micrograms per Kg) is given with a protein called Arginine ( 30g in 100mLs) as an infusion over 30 minutes. Blood samples to check GH levels are then taken at 30 minutes and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. 2. Stimulation test for SH: Short Synacthen test (SST) is used to test for SH. During this test, a sample of blood is taken and then an intramuscular injection (into muscle, usually the shoulder muscle) of Synacthen is given. Synacthen is a synthetic hormone that mimics one of the hormones of the pituitary gland called ACTH. After it has been injected, two further blood tests are done 30 minutes and 60 minutes after the injection to analyse whether the Synacthen has caused an appropriate rise in the level of a hormone called cortisol. The injections that are given during the stimulation tests are either naturally occurring or synthetic versions of naturally occurring substances. They are tolerated by most patients but the tests are done under the supervision of an appropriate clinician, in case of any adverse reactions. The patients selected to have an MRI scan at the first stage have the scan repeated at all follow ups stages. Finally, during the third and fourth stages, participants are asked to complete the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) to assesses functional recovery following TBI. This feasibility study is planned to test all aspects of the PitSTOP protocol prior to starting the main study. During this feasibility study, the first follow up stage will be omitted. Intervention type Biological/Vaccine Phase Drug names Primary outcome measures Prevalence of post TBI pituitary gland dysfunction (PTPD) is measured with pituitary function test (baseline measurements of serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, testosterone, IGF-1 and cortisol) acutely (within 7 days), sub-acutely (within one month) and long-term (up to 6 months and up to 12 months) after TBI. Also a short synacthen test and GHRH + Arginine tests will be performed in the sub-acutely (within one month) and long-term (6 month and 12 months). Secondary outcome measures 1. Clinical and radiological markers are measured using the clinical information available at the time of presentation to hospital and serial MRI of the pituitary gland performed acutely, within one month and long-term (6 to 12 months) in a subset of patients to try to predict the occurrence of PTPD 2. Optimal timing for surveillance for PTPD using the clinical and radiological information detailed above 3. Functional recovery of patients with PTPD using Glasgow Outcome Score (eGOS) at end of study period (six to 12 months) Overall trial start date 01/09/2016 Overall trial end date 01/08/2020 Reason abandoned Eligibility Participant inclusion criteria 1. Primary traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) including multi trauma 2. Patients aged 17 years at the time of TBI 3. Informed consent obtained from participant Participant type Patient Age group Adult Gender Both Target number of participants 100 Participant exclusion criteria 1. Patients with a pre-existing endocrine diagnosis 2. Morbidly obese patients with BMI > 35 3. Unlikely to survive for the next 24 hours in the opinion of the Intensive care or Neurosurgical team treating the patient 4. Patients with known epilepsy 5. Patients on medications that are known to affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axis 6. Patients who are not able to consent Recruitment start date 01/12/2017 Recruitment end date 01/12/2019 Locations Countries of recruitment United Kingdom Trial participating centre Western General Hospital Crewe Road South Edinburgh EH4 2XU United Kingdom Trial participating centre Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh 51 Little France Crescent Old Dalkeith Road Edinburgh EH16 4SA United Kingdom Sponsor information Organisation University of Edinburgh Sponsor details Academic and Central Clinical Office for Research and Development College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine University of Edinburgh The Queen's Medical Research Institute 47 Little France Crescent Edinburgh EH16 4TJ United Kingdom Sponsor type University/education Website http://www.accord.scot/ Funders Funder type Charity Funder name Edinburgh and Lothians Health Foundation Alternative name(s) ELHF Funding Body Type private sector organisation Funding Body Subtype foundation Location United Kingdom Results and Publications Publication and dissemination plan We intend to publish the results of this study by February 2020. IPD sharing statement: The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are/will be available upon request from John Emelifeonwu johnemelifeonwu@gmail.com), Investigator Intention to publish date 01/02/2020 Participant level data Available on request Results - basic reporting Publication summary Publication citations From https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN71291784
  11. By Tori Rodriguez, MA, LPC In the early 20th century, the term "pluriglandular syndrome" was coined by Harvey Cushing to describe the disorder that results from chronic tissue exposure to excessive levels of glucocorticoids.1 Now called Cushing's syndrome, the condition affects an estimated 10-15 million people annually, most often women and individuals between the ages of 20 and 50 years.2 Risk factors and common comorbidities include hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, uncontrolled diabetes, depression, and anxiety.3 Presentation The clinical presentation of the disorder is heterogenous and varies by sex, age, and disease severity. Common signs and symptoms include central adiposity, roundness of the face or extra fat around the neck, thin skin, impaired short-term memory and concentration, irritability, hirsutism in women, fatigue, and menstrual irregularity.4 Because each of these features may be observed in a wide range of other conditions, it may be difficult to diagnose cases that are not severe. "It can be challenging to differentiate the milder forms from pseudo-Cushing's states," which are characterized by altered cortisol production and many of the same clinical features as Cushing's syndrome, according to Roberto Salvatori, MD, the medical director of the Johns Hopkins Pituitary Center, Baltimore, Maryland. These may include alcoholism, obesity, eating disorders, and depression. "Because Cushing's can cause depression, for example, it is sometimes difficult to determine which came first," he says. In these states, however, hypercortisolism is believed to be driven by increased secretion of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, which is suppressed in Cushing's syndrome.5 Causes and Diagnosis If Cushing's syndrome is suspected on the basis of the patient's physical appearance, the diagnostic workup should include a thorough medical history, physical exam, and 1 or more of the following tests to establish hypercortisolism: the 24-hour urinary cortisol test, the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, or the late-night salivary cortisol test. "We sometimes use 2 or 3 of these tests since 1 may not accurately reflect cortisol production in a particular patient," Dr Salvatori notes. The next step is to determine the source of the hypercortisolism, which may involve the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, magnetic resonance imaging, or petrosal sinus sampling.2 Medication is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome. These iatrogenic or exogenous cases typically result from corticosteroids administered for conditions such as asthma, allergies, and autoimmune disorders.6 More rarely, the disorder can be caused by the use of medroxyprogesterone. In these cases, corticosteroids should be reduced or discontinued under medical care, if possible. Endogenous Cushing's syndrome results from the presence of benign or malignant tumors on the adrenal or pituitary glands or elsewhere in the body. These tumors can interfere with the adrenal glands' production of cortisol that is usually prompted by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released by the pituitary gland.6 There are 3 different mechanisms by which the process can occur. Pituitary adenomas, which account for approximately 70% of endogenous cases of Cushing's syndrome, secrete ACTH and stimulate additional cortisol production. Because of the large proportion of cases this condition represents, it is specifically referred to as Cushing's disease. It is more common in women than men (with a ratio of 3 to 4:1), although in pediatric patients, it occurs more frequently in boys vs girls.5 Adrenal tumors (adenomas, malignant tumors, or micronodular hyperplasia) produce cortisol in their own tissue in addition to the amount produced by the adrenal glands. These tumors, which cause approximately 15% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome cases, are more common in children vs adults and in women vs men. Benign or malignant tumors elsewhere in the body, most often the lungs, thyroid, thymus, and pancreas, secrete ACTH and trigger the excessive release of cortisol. An estimated 15% of endogenous cases are attributed to these types of tumors. Treatment Surgery is the first-line treatment for Cushing's syndrome. "We first want to try to figure out the cause of the disorder," Dr Salvatori says. "Ideally, treatment involves surgery to remove the tumor that is causing it." When surgery is unsuccessful, contraindicated, or delayed, other treatment options include radiation or medications that inhibit cortisol, modulate the release of ACTH, or inhibit steroidogenesis.5 Bilateral adrenalectomy may be indicated for patients who do not respond to medication or other surgery. If surgical resection of the tumor is successful, then "all of the comorbidities reverse, but if it is unsuccessful or must be delayed, you would treat each comorbidity" with the appropriate medication; for example, antihypertensives for high blood pressure and antidiabetic medications for diabetes, Dr Salvatori advises. In severe cases, prophylactic antibiotics may be indicated for the prevention of severe infections such as pneumonia. It is also important to inquire about and address psychiatric symptoms related to Cushing's syndrome, even in patients who are in remission. It has been proposed that the chronic hypercortisolism and dysfunction of the HPA axis may "lead to structural and functional changes in the central nervous system, developing brain atrophy, particularly in the hippocampus, which may determine the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders, such as affective and anxiety disorders or cognitive dysfunctions," according to a recently published paper on the topic.7 Patients should be screened with self-report questionnaires such as the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and management of psychiatric symptoms may include patient education, psychotropic medications, and referral to a mental health professional. Future Directions Several trials are currently planned or underway, including a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of an oral medication called ATR-101 by Millendo Therapeutics, Inc. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03053271). In addition to the need for novel medical therapies, refined imaging techniques could improve surgical success rates in patients with Cushing's disease in particular, according to Dr Salvatori. "A significant portion of these patients have tumors too small to be detected by MRI, and the development of more sensitive MRI could improve detection and provide a surgical target" for neurosurgeons treating the patients, he says. Summary Milder cases of Cushing's syndrome present diagnostic challenges are a result overlapping features with various other conditions. Diagnosis may require careful observation as well as biochemical and imaging tests. RELATED ARTICLES New Research Highlights Possible Genetic Cause of Cushing's Disease Endocrine Society Releases Guidelines on Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome Pediatric Endocrine Society Provides Guidance for Growth Hormone Use in Pediatric Patients References Loriaux DL. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1451-1459. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1505550 American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Cushing's syndrome/disease. http://www.aans.org/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Cushings-Disease. Accessed August 1, 2017. León-Justel A, Madrazo-Atutxa A, Alvarez-Rios AI, et al. A probabilistic model for cushing's syndrome screening in at-risk populations: a prospective multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101:3747-3754. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-1673 The Pituitary Society. Cushing's syndrome and disease–symptoms. https://pituitarysociety.org/patient-education/pituitary-disorders/cushings/symptoms-of-cushings-disease-and-cushings-syndrome. Accessed August 1, 2017. Sharma ST, Nieman LK, Feelders RA. Cushing's syndrome: epidemiology and developments in disease management. Clin Epidemiol. 2015;7:281-293. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S44336 National Institutes of Health: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. What causes Cushing's syndrome?https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/cushing/conditioninfo/pages/causes.aspx. Accessed August 1, 2017. Santos A, Resmini E, Pascual JC, Crespo I, Webb SM. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with Cushing's syndrome: prevalence, diagnosis and management. Drugs. 2017;77:829-842. doi:10.1007/s40265-017-0735-z From http://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/adrenal/cushings-syndrome-diagnosis-treatment/article/682302/
  12. Abstract Objective Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by excess secretion of ACTH due to a pituitary adenoma. Current treatment options are limited and may pose additional risks. A literature review was conducted to assess the holistic burden of CD. Design Studies published in English were evaluated to address questions regarding the epidemiology of CD, time to diagnosis, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), treatment outcomes, mortality, prevalence of comorbidities at diagnosis, and reversibility of comorbidities following the treatment. Methods A two-stage literature search was performed in Medline, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index, using keywords related to the epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of CD: i) articles published from 2000 to 2012 were identified and ii) an additional hand search (all years) was conducted on the basis of bibliography of identified articles. Results At the time of diagnosis, 58–85% of patients have hypertension, 32–41% are obese, 20–47% have diabetes mellitus, 50–81% have major depression, 31–50% have osteoporosis, and 38–71% have dyslipidemia. Remission rates following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) are high when performed by expert pituitary surgeons (rates of 65–90%), but the potential for relapse remains (rates of 5–36%). Although some complications can be partially reversed, time to reversal can take years. The HRQoL of patients with CD also remains severely compromised after remission. Conclusions These findings highlight the significant burden associated with CD. As current treatment options may not fully reverse the burden of chronic hypercortisolism, there is a need for both improved diagnostic tools to reduce the time to diagnosis and effective therapy, particularly a targeted medical therapy. Introduction Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare condition caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes excess ACTH (1), which promotes excess cortisol production from the adrenal glands. Excess cortisol induces a clinical phenotype that harbors all components of the metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, as well as muscle weakness, hirsutism, increased bruisability, psychological dysfunction, and osteoporosis (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). Patients with CD experience a significant clinical burden due to comorbidities, increased mortality, and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to prolonged exposure to elevated cortisol levels (3, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). In particular, patients with CD often experience severe fatigue and weakness, physical changes, emotional instability, depression, and cognitive impairments, which have a profound impact on daily life (13, 21). Although there have been several consensus statements published recently on the definition of remission, diagnosis, and the management of CD, the severity and diversity of the clinical scenario and associated morbidities continue to present a management challenge (1, 22, 23). Additionally, there is recent evidence of persistent deleterious effects after remission, most notably persistent elevated cardiovascular risk (3, 22). The main objective of the current literature review is to describe the current burden of the disease and to summarize data on specific aspects of this burden, which underscores the need for improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Materials and methods Available literature were evaluated to address questions regarding the epidemiology of CD, time to diagnosis, mortality, prevalence of comorbidities at diagnosis, reversibility of comorbidities after treatment (in particular, after disease remission), outcomes and complications of current treatment options, and HRQoL associated with CD and interventions. The literature search was performed in Medline, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index, using keywords related to the epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of CD. It was conducted in two stages: i) articles published between 2000 and 2012 were identified through a PubMed search using the following keywords: CD, incidence, prevalence, mortality, treatment, remission, cure, excess cortisol, outcomes, cost, QoL, morbidities, transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), adrenalectomy, radiotherapy, steroidogenesis inhibitors, ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide, etomidate, metyrapone, pasireotide, and cortisol receptor antagonists; and ii) an additional hand search was conducted on the basis of the bibliographies of identified articles. All studies that provided data (regardless of publication year) related to these research questions were retained. Definitions Different criteria for defining the remission of hypercortisolism have been proposed, ranging from the occurrence of definitive or transient postoperative hypocortisolemia to the adequate suppression of cortisol after dexamethasone administration. According to a recent consensus statement (23), persistent postoperative morning serum cortisol levels of <2 μg/dl (∼50 nmol/l) are associated with remission and a low recurrence rate of ∼10% at 10 years. Persistent serum cortisol levels above 5 μg/dl (∼140 nmol/l) for up to 6 weeks following surgery require further evaluation. When serum cortisol levels are between 2 and 5 μg/dl, the patient can be considered in remission and can be observed without additional treatment for CD. A subset of patients can even develop complete adrenal insufficiency (serum cortisol levels below 2 μg/dl (∼50 nmol/l)) up to 12 weeks postsurgery (24, 25). Therefore, repeated evaluation in the early postoperative period is recommended. However, long-term follow-up is necessary for all patients because no single cortisol cutoff value excludes those who later experience disease recurrence, and up to 25% of patients develop a recurrent adenoma within 10 years after surgery (26, 27, 28). Results Incidence and prevalence of CD Although epidemiologic data on CD are limited, several population-based studies indicate an incidence of 1.2–2.4 per million (14, 19) and the prevalence of diagnosed cases to be ∼39 per million population (14). Lindholm et al. (19) used the case definition as either the presence of a corticotroph adenoma or remission after neurosurgery, which yielded an estimated incidence rate of 1.2–1.7 per million per year. Etxabe & Vazquez (14) reported an incidence of 2.4 per million in Vizcaya, Spain. A large-scale retrospective survey carried out in New Zealand by Bolland et al. (29) found the approximate prevalence of all forms of Cushing's syndrome (CS) (the majority of these cases were of pituitary origin) to be 79 per million and the incidence to be 1.8 per million per year. Differences in epidemiologic estimates may be attributable to varying case definitions (for instance, the study by Lindholm excluded cases in which the adenoma could not be localized or those that could not achieve remission from surgery), geographical differences, and temporal effects. The prevalence of CD may be underestimated due to unrecognized patients with mild symptoms and patients with a cyclic form of CD (30). Time to diagnosis Data on the time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis are also limited. In a prospective study by Flitsch et al. (31) of 48 patients with pituitary adenomas, including 19 who had ACTH-secreting adenomas causing CD, the reported time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 4.3 years. A study by Martinez Ruiz et al. (32), which was based on only four pediatric CD patients, reported the time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis as ranging from 2.5 to 5 years. Etxabe & Vazquez (14) estimated that the average time from onset of clinical symptoms to diagnosis in 49 CD patients was 45.8±2.7 months (6–144 months), thus 3.8 years. This is corroborated by the findings from a Belgian cross-sectional study on pituitary adenomas including CD, which estimated that patients experienced symptoms for an average of 45 months before diagnosis (33). However, the reliability and generalizability of these data are limited by small sample sizes and the retrospective nature of the studies. Indeed, the New Zealand data from Bolland et al. (29) report that on presentation, patients experienced symptoms for a median of 2.0 years (but ranging up to 20 years) before diagnosis. On the basis of data from the prospective European Registry on Cushing's syndrome (ERCUSYN) (total number of patients=481, of whom 66% of patients had CD), median delay in diagnosis was 2 years (34). Mortality in patients with CD Mortality in patients with CD has been analyzed in several small studies, with overall rates reported as standardized mortality ratio (SMR) ranging from 1.7 to 4.8 (Table 1) (14, 15, 17, 19). In studies in which mortality was assessed among those in remission and those with persistent disease separately, patients with persistent hypercortisolemia consistently had the highest mortality risk (15, 19, 35, 36). In addition, TSS as a first-line treatment has been an important advance as high remission rates after initial surgery have been accompanied by mortality rates that mirror those observed in the general population (17, 35, 37). In a case series from the UK, it was found that the majority of deaths occurred before 1985, which was before TSS was employed as the routine first-line treatment at the center (36). In a recent retrospective study, 80 patients undergoing TSS for CD between 1988 and 2009 were evaluated, and long-term cure (defined as ongoing absence of hypercortisolism at last follow-up) was reported in 72% of patients. However, overall elevated mortality persisted in patients (SMR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.70–5.43)), including those who achieved ‘cure’ (SMR 2.47 (95% CI: 0.80–5.77)), although even higher mortality was seen in those with postoperative recurrence/persistent disease (SMR 4.12 (95% CI: 1.12–10.54) (38). Additionally, a nationwide, retrospective study in New Zealand reported significant persistently increased mortality both in macro- and microadenomas (SMR 3.5 (1.3–7.8) and 3.2 (2.0–4.8) respectively), despite long-term biochemical remission rates of 93 and 91% of patients, respectively (29). Read more at http://m.eje-online.org/content/167/3/311.full
  13. CLCI699C2302: A Phase III, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, 48 Week Study with an Initial 12 Week Placebo-controlled Period to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Osilodrostat in Patients with Cushing’s Disease Purpose In people with a disorder known as Cushing’s disease, levels of the hormone cortisol are very high in the urine and blood. Lowering cortisol levels relieves the symptoms of Cushing’s disease. Osilodrostat is an investigational drug that inhibits an enzyme needed for cortisol to be made. In this study, researchers are assessing the safety and effectiveness of osilodrostat in patients with Cushing¿s disease and observing its ability to reduce cortisol levels. In the first 12 weeks of the study, patients will receive osilodrostat or a placebo (inactive drug). After week 12 and continuing through week 48, all patients will receive osilodrostat. Patients will then have the option to continue taking osilodrostat for up to 100 weeks into the study, if they wish. Osilodrostat is taken orally (by mouth). Eligibility To be eligible for this study, patients must meet several criteria, including but not limited to the following: Patients must have Cushing¿s disease with elevated levels of cortisol in the urine. An acceptable amount of time must have passed between the completion of prior therapies and entry into the study, to allow for a sufficient “washout” period. This study is for patients ages 18 to 75. For more information about this study and to inquire about eligibility, please contact Dr. Eliza Geer at 646-888-2627. Protocol 17-351 Phase III Investigator Eliza B. Geer Co-Investigators Monica Girotra Diseases Pituitary Tumor Locations Memorial Sloan Kettering Memorial Hospital From https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/clinical-trials/17-351
  14. until
    Presented by Linda M. Rio, M.A., MFT After registering you will receive a confirmation email with details about joining the webinar. Contact us at webinar@pituitary.org with any questions or suggestions. DATE: July 17, 2017 TIME: 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Pacific Daylight Time/1:00 PM - 2:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time Webinar Learning Objectives: By attending this webinar participants will: Be able to identify at least 3 mental health symptoms that are common to those diagnosed with a pituitary disorder. Understand basics of “trauma” and its potential role in the etiology of some pituitary disorders. Know how the medical/physiological aspects of pituitary tumors and other pituitary disorders can interact and affect the mental health of patients. Recognize the potential impact on the family for those with a member with a pituitary disorder. Learn some positive coping skills for both pituitary patients and their family members. Presenter Bio: Linda has been a Marriage & Family Therapist (MFT) for over thirty years. She is also the editor/author of The Hormone Factor in Mental Health: Bridging the Mind-body Gap (2014), which includes contributions from some of the world’s top experts in endocrinology, medical family therapy, nutrition, patient advocacy as well as real accounts from patients and their family members. Linda was on the editorial team for Pituitary Disorders Diagnosis and Management (2013), and co-author with her daughter, Tara, of a book about eating disorders. She has authored dozens of articles for professionals as well as the general public on a variety of topics, appeared on radio and T.V. Linda and her husband, Lou, just celebrated their 48th anniversary. They have two children and 3 granddaughters who are now in college.
  15. Today is the anniversary of MaryO's pituitary surgery at NIH in 1987. Read more at https://cushingsbios.com/2016/11/03/29-years-giving-thanks/
  16. I am a very late entry. Shortly after my 5th anniversary post surgery 2005, in the 6th year, I knew something was "different". That old sense of dread returned. At the 6th anniversary checkup, I popped a "high" on urine cortisol. But it was a one time thing, not repeated in a "sequential lab". Over the next two years, my blood sugar went haywire, not controlled by higher and higher doses of metformin. My weight began creeping up from 150# to just over 180# when the blood labs confirmed in the 8th year, "the monster" was back, with a new head. I was referred to UVA, Dr. Mary V. and her teammate surgeon, Dr. O. They also brought in the GKS EXPERT at UVA, a pleasant "young man", In 2013, October I had debulking of the tumor and 7 weeks later in December the GKS. We put on some fine music and I took a nap. Here I am in the 4th year since second round of surgery, and all labs are excellent. Getting OLD isn't so much fun, but endocrine is OK.
  17. Finding may lead to therapies that prevent pituitary tumor recurrence. Read more: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-researchers-find-potential-genetic-cause-cushing-syndrome
  18. Diagnosing Cushing’s syndrome can take 24 hours of complicated and repeated analysis of blood and urine, brain imaging, and tissue samples from sinuses. But that may soon be in the past: National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers have found that measuring cortisol levels in hair samples can do the same job faster. Patients with Cushing’s syndrome have a high level of cortisol, perhaps from a tumor of the pituitary or adrenal glands, or as a side effect from medications. In the study, 36 participants—30 with Cushing’s syndrome, six without—provided hair samples divided into three equal segments. The researchers found that the segments closest to the scalp had the most cortisol (96.6 ± 267.7 pg/mg for Cushing’s syndrome patients versus 14.1 ± 9.2 pg/mg in control patients). Those segments’ cortisol content correlated most closely with the majority of the initial biochemical tests, including in blood taken at night (when cortisol levels normally drop). The study was small; Cushing’s syndrome is rare, and it’s hard to recruit large numbers of patients. Still, the researchers believe it is the largest of its kind to compare hair cortisol levels to diagnostic tests in Cushing’s patients. “Our results are encouraging,” said Mihail Zilbermint, MD, the study’s senior author and an endocrinologist at NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “We are hopeful that hair analysis may ultimately prove useful as a less-invasive screening test for Cushing’s syndrome or in helping to confirm the diagnosis.” The authors suggest the test is also a convenient alternative with the “unique ability” for retrospective evaluation of hypercortisolemia over months. Download PDF From https://www.ptcommunity.com/journal/article/full/2017/4/271/research-briefs-april-2017
  19. Clinical trials are research studies that test new treatments to see how well they work. Our Pituitary and Skull Base Tumor Center is leading clinical trials investigating new medical therapies for patients with Cushing’s disease and acromegaly. They are also involved in quality-of-life studies aimed at improving long-term follow-up care for patients who need it. Our experts can help determine which clinical trials are right for you. The following clinical trials for pituitary tumors are currently enrolling new patients. To learn more about a particular study, choose from the list below. For more information about our research and clinical trials, call us at 212-639-3935, or talk with your doctor. A Phase III Study of COR-003 to Treat Cushing's Syndrome Diseases: Adrenal Tumors, Pituitary Tumor Locations: New York City Eligibility Eliza B. Geer A Phase III Study of LCI699 (Osilodrostat) to Treat Cushing's Disease Diseases: Adrenal Tumors, Pituitary Tumor Locations: New York City Eligibility Eliza B. Geer
  20. Rank Status Study 1 Recruiting Study to Evaluate CORT125134 in Patients With Cushing's Syndrome Condition: Cushing's Syndrome Intervention: Drug: CORT125134 2 Recruiting Cushing's Disease Complications Condition: Cushing's Disease Intervention: Other: Exams and questionnaires 3 Recruiting The Accuracy of Late Night Urinary Free Cortisol/Creatinine and Hair Cortisol in Cushing's Syndrome Diagnosis Condition: Cushing Syndrome Intervention: 4 Recruiting Treatment for Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome Condition: Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome Intervention: Drug: COR-003 5 Recruiting Saliva Cortisol Measurement as a Screening Test for Suspicious Cushings Syndrome in Children. Condition: Cushings Syndrome Intervention: Other: Children refered to the obesity clinic 6 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy of LCI699 for the Treatment of Patients With Cushing's Disease Condition: Cushing's Disease Intervention: Drug: LCI699 7 Recruiting Treatment of Cushing's Disease With R-roscovitine Condition: Cushings Disease Intervention: Drug: R-roscovitine 8 Recruiting A Study of ATR-101 for the Treatment of Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome Condition: Cushing Syndrome Interventions: Drug: ATR-101; Drug: Placebos 9 Recruiting Evaluation of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, Octreotide and F-DOPA PET Imaging in Patients With Ectopic Cushing Syndrome Condition: Cushing Syndrome Interventions: Drug: F-DOPA PET Scan; Drug: Mifepristone; Drug: Ga-DOTATATE; Drug: Octreoscan; Other: CT, MRI 10 Not yet recruiting Endocrine Cardiomyopathy in Cushing Syndrome: Response to Cyclic GMP PDE5 inhibitOrs Condition: Cushing's Syndrome Cardiomyopathy Intervention: Drug: Tadalafil 11 Recruiting Long-term Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Adrenalectomy in Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome of Adrenal Incidentaloma Condition: Cushing Syndrome Intervention: Procedure: surgery 12 Recruiting Long Term Safety and Efficacy of Pasireotide s.c. in Patients With Cushing's Disease Condition: Cushings Disease Intervention: Drug: SOM230 13 Recruiting New Imaging Techniques in the Evaluation of Patients With Ectopic Cushing Syndrome Condition: Cushing Syndrome Interventions: Drug: Pentetreotide; Drug: 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose; Drug: (18F)-L-3,4-dihydroxyophenylalanine (18F-DOPA) 14 Not yet recruiting Targeting Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome With 11β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibition Condition: Iatrogenic Cushing's Disease Interventions: Drug: AZD4017 and prednisolone; Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet and prednisolone 15 Not yet recruiting Assessment of Persistent Cognitive Impairment After Cure of Cushing's Disease Condition: Cushing's Disease Intervention: Device: Virtual radial task in 3D 16 Recruiting Biomarker Expression in Patients With ACTH-Dependent Cushing's Syndrome Before and After Surgery Condition: Cushing's Syndrome Intervention: 17 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Osilodrostat in Cushing's Disease Condition: Cushing's Disease Interventions: Drug: osilodrostat; Drug: osilodrostat Placebo 18 Recruiting Effects of Metyrapone in Patients With Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome Condition: Cushing's Syndrome Intervention: Drug: metyrapone 19 Recruiting Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients With Overt or Subclinical Cushings Syndrome, and Bilateral Adrenal Tumors Condition: Cushing Syndrome Intervention: Radiation: Adrenal venous sampling 20 Recruiting Glycemic Fluctuations in Newly Diagnosed Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma and Cushing Syndrome Subjects Condition: Pituitary Adenoma Intervention: Device: continuous glucose monitoring Rank Status Study 21 Recruiting Targeted Therapy With Gefitinib in Patients With USP8-mutated Cushing's Disease Conditions: Cushing's Disease; Corticotrophin Adenoma Intervention: Drug: Gefitinib 22 Recruiting Cardiac Steatosis in Cushing's Syndrome Conditions: Endocrine System Disease; Cardiovascular Imaging Intervention: Other: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and CMRI 23 Recruiting Study of Management of Pasireotide-induced Hyperglycemia in Adult Patients With Cushing's Disease or Acromegaly Conditions: Cushing's Disease; Acromegaly Interventions: Drug: Pasireotide s.c.; Drug: Sitagliptin; Drug: Liraglutide; Drug: Insulin; Drug: Pasireotide LAR; Drug: Metformin 24 Recruiting Study of Efficacy and Safety of Osilodrostat in Cushing's Syndrome Conditions: Cushing's Syndrome; Ectopic Corticotropin Syndrome; Adrenal Adenoma; Adrenal Carcinoma; AIMAH; PPNAD Intervention: Drug: Osilodrostat 25 Recruiting Effects of Hormone Stimulation on Brain Scans for Cushing s Disease Condition: Pituitary Neoplasm Intervention: Drug: Acthrel 26 Recruiting Does Serum-DXM Increase Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overnight DXM Suppression Test in the Work-up of Cushing's Syndrome? Conditions: Cushing's Syndrome; Adrenal Incidentalomas; Alcoholism; Obesity Intervention: 27 Recruiting Adrenalectomy Versus Follow-up in Patients With Subclinical Cushings Syndrome Condition: Adrenal Tumour With Mild Hypercortisolism Intervention: Procedure: Adrenalectomy 28 Recruiting Study of Adrenalectomy Versus Observation for Subclinical Hypercortisolism Conditions: Hypercortisolism; Cushing Syndrome Interventions: Procedure: Adrenalectomy; Other: Observation 29 Not yet recruiting Dynamic Hormone Diagnostics in Endocrine Disease Conditions: Adrenal Insufficiency; Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia; Cushing Syndrome; Growth Hormone Deficiency; Acromegaly; Primary Hyperaldosteronism Intervention: Other: 27 hour subcutaneous fluid sampling 30 Recruiting An Investigation of Pituitary Tumors and Related Hypothalmic Disorders Conditions: Abnormalities; Craniopharyngioma; Cushing's Syndrome; Endocrine Disease; Pituitary Neoplasm Intervention: 31 Recruiting Ga-68-DOTATOC -PET in the Management of Pituitary Tumours Condition: Pituitary Tumours Intervention: Procedure: Gallium-68 DOTATOC PET 32 Recruiting Efficacy of Mifepristone in Males With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Conditions: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Insulin Resistance Interventions: Drug: Mifepristone 600 mg daily; Drug: Placebo 33 Recruiting Targeted Therapy With Lapatinib in Patients With Recurrent Pituitary Tumors Resistant to Standard Therapy Conditions: Pituitary Adenomas; Prolactinomas Intervention: Drug: Lapatinib 34 Recruiting Mutations of Glucocorticoid Receptor in Bilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia Condition: General Glucocorticoid Resistance Intervention: Genetic: blood collection for mutation characterization 35 Recruiting Defining the Genetic Basis for the Development of Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) and the Carney Complex Conditions: Cushing's Syndrome; Hereditary Neoplastic Syndrome; Lentigo; Neoplasm; Testicular Neoplasm Intervention: 36 Not yet recruiting Reduction by Pasireotide of the Effluent Volume in High-output Enterostomy in Patients Refractory to Usual Medical Treatment Condition: Enterostomy Interventions: Drug: Pasireotide; Drug: Placebo 37 Recruiting Mifepristone for Breast Cancer Patients With Higher Levels of Progesterone Receptor Isoform A Than Isoform B. Condition: Breast Cancer Intervention: Drug: Mifepristone 38 Recruiting SOM230 Ectopic ACTH-producing Tumors Condition: Ectopic ACTH Syndrome Intervention: Drug: Pasireotide 39 Recruiting Decreasing Rates of Intraurethral Catheterization Postoperatively in Spine Surgery Condition: Post-operative Urinary Retention Interventions: Drug: Tamsulosin; Drug: Placebo 40 Recruiting Adrenal Tumors - Pathogenesis and Therapy Conditions: Adrenal Tumors; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Cushing Syndrome; Conn Syndrome; Pheochromocytoma Intervention:
  21. Two investigational long-acting growth-hormone (GH) replacement products hold potential for less frequent dosing and improved adherence among adult patients with proven growth-hormone deficiency. Adult growth-hormone deficiency is a rare disorder characterized by the inadequate secretion of the growth hormone from the pituitary gland. It can be hereditary; can be acquired as a result of trauma, infection, radiation therapy, or brain tumor growth; and can even emerge without a diagnosable cause. Currently, it is treated with once-daily injections of subcutaneous growth hormone. The new results, from a 26-week phase 3 trial of Novo Nordisk's once-weekly growth-hormone derivative somapacitan and a dose-finding phase 2 safety study of Versartis's long-acting recombinant growth hormone somavaratan, both in adult patients with growth-hormone deficiency, were presented here at ENDO 2017: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. "Compliance is often a problem with daily growth-hormone injections in children and even with adults," session moderator Luma Ghalib, MD, assistant professor in the division of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, told Medscape Medical News. "Patients will often stop taking the daily medications, sometimes because of the cost but also because the daily injections are cumbersome. So the two longer-acting agents that have been studied will be an amazing breakthrough if they get [uS FDA]-approved." But, she cautioned, longer-term data are needed. "In the long term, we worry about the metabolic effects. We know growth hormone can increase insulin resistance and diabetes, so we have to keep an eye on the peaks." And, she added, there could be a small risk for regrowth of the pituitary adenoma that caused the growth-hormone deficiency. "The risk will probably be slim because we haven't seen regrowth with the daily dosing, but it hasn't been studied." Read more at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/878088
  22. I find it amazing that it's newsworthy in this day and age for anyone receiving support after a diagnosis. Of course, a diagnosed person should be getting support as a matter of course. If she had cancer, everyone would be all over this. For Kara Murrow, the most rewarding moments as a teacher come when students learn about animals in the classroom. So it’s difficult for the Bonham Elementary fifth-grade science and social studies teacher to be away from school while she prepares for surgery. “I enjoy it, and I know my kids enjoy the class and enjoy science because of it,” Murrow said. “With the science club I do after school once a week, the kids get upset when it gets canceled because of meetings. Not having it now is upsetting, too.” Murrow was diagnosed this month with Cushing’s disease, a condition that develops when a tumor on the pituitary gland causes it to secrete too much adrenocorticotropic hormone. Murrow, who moved to West Texas from Arizona three years ago, said she has received support from Midland ISD employees and others in the local community. Murrow’s mother, Louise Gonzalez, also appreciates Midlanders’ concerns for her daughter. “People in Midland have been wonderful, considering how new we are to the area,” Gonzalez said. “The school district sent out the GoFundMe page and there’s been an outpouring of support for that. People at my church always ask me.” Murrow’s family is collecting donations from the website GoFundMe to cover the costs of medical and travel expenses. Murrow and her husband, Kai, recently spent money on hospital stays connected to their 4-year-old son’s food sensitivities. “They’ve been paying off those bills and doing OK until this came,” Gonzalez said. “Plus, she’s been going to the doctor about this. Because Cushing’s is so rare, doctors don’t recognize it.” Murrow was diagnosed with the disease after medical professionals discovered a tumor on her pituitary gland. For six years, she experienced symptoms — including weight gain, dizziness and headaches — but said doctors couldn’t determine the cause. Murrow was thankful when she received an answer. “It was a huge relief to finally have a diagnosis and know that I wasn’t crazy or making things up,” Murrow said. “It’s weird to be excited about a brain tumor. It’s a relief to know what was happening and that I have a solution.” Murrow traveled this week to Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, where she’s scheduled to undergo surgery to remove the tumor. Though Murrow said recovery lasts several months, she hopes to return to the classroom next school year. Jaime White, fourth-grade language arts and social studies teacher at Bonham, said both staff and students miss her presence. She said Murrow expresses concern for her students during her time away. “She’s worried about how kids will do on the STAAR [state of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness],” White said. “She doesn’t want them to think she abandoned them. The disease has to take center stage.” At school, White said she noticed her colleague’s dedication toward helping her students understand science. “She’s hands-on,” White said. “When it comes to science, she’s always making sure the kids are doing some sort of experiment. She wants to make sure the kids grasp it.” Murrow teaches students about animals through dissections and presentations. Before she became a teacher nine years ago, she coordinated outreach programs at an Arizona zoo. When she came to MISD, Murrow saw an opportunity to generate enthusiasm about science. She launched an invite-only science club for fifth-graders who show interest in the subject. “I started it because there wasn’t really anything,” Murrow said. “They have tutorials for reading and math. There’s not a lot kids can do with science after school. They get science in the younger grades, but the focus is on reading and math. Science is something kids really enjoy.” Though Murrow is disappointed about not being able to facilitate the club, she recognizes the importance of her upcoming surgery. She’s happy her mother, husband and two children will be in Phoenix for support. “I hope that it will bring about a sense of relief to all the symptoms I’ve been dealing with and provide a chance for myself and my family to continue along with a full life,” Murrow said. From http://www.mrt.com/news/local/article/Science-teacher-receives-support-after-11026581.php
  23. Early and midterm nonremission after transsphenoidal surgery in people with Cushing’s disease may be predicted by normalized early postoperative values for adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, study data show. Prashant Chittiboina, MD, MPH, assistant clinical investigator in the neurosurgery unit for pituitary and inheritable diseases at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke at the NIH, and colleagues evaluated 250 patients with Cushing’s disease who received 291 transsphenoidal surgery procedures during the study period to determine remission after the procedure. Patients were treated between December 2003 and July 2016. Early remission was assessed at 10 days and medium-term remission was assessed at 11 months. Early nonremission was predicted by normalized early postoperative values for cortisol (P = .016) and by normalized early postoperative values for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; P = .048). Early nonremission was further predicted with 100% sensitivity, 39% specificity, 100% negative predictive value and 18% positive predictive value for a cutoff of –12 µg/mL in normalized early postoperative values for cortisol and with 88% sensitivity, 41% specificity, 96% negative predictive value and 16% positive predictive value for a cutoff of –40 pg/mL in normalized early postoperative values for ACTH. Medium-term nonremission was also predicted by normalized early postoperative values for cortisol (P = .023) and ACTH (P = .025). “We evaluated the utility of early postoperative cortisol and ACTH levels for predicting nonremission after transsphenoidal adenomectomy for Cushing’s disease,” the researchers wrote. “Postoperative operative day 1 values at 6 a.m. performed best at predicting early nonremission, albeit with a lower [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve]. Normalizing early cortisol and ACTH values to post-[corticotropin-releasing hormone] values improved their prognostic value. Further prospective studies will explore the utility of normalized very early postoperative day 0 cortisol and ACTH levels in identifying patients at risk for nonremission following [transsphenoidal surgery] in patients with [Cushing’s disease].” – by Amber Cox Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures. From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/in-the-journals/%7B7de200ed-c667-4b48-ab19-256d90a7bbc5%7D/postoperative-acth-cortisol-levels-may-predict-cushings-disease-remission-rate
  24. Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol. Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc. Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient. Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide. Request to View Tables of Content @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/14155 Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types: By Drug Type Ketoconazole Mitotane Aminoglutethimide Metyrapone Mifepristone Etomidate Pasireotide By End User Hospital Pharmacies Retail Pharmacies Drug Stores Clinics e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA). North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region. Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period. Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share. Buy Now: You can now buy a single user license of the report at http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/checkout/14155 The final report customized as per your specific requirement will be sent to your e-mail id within 7-20 days, depending on the scope of the report. The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to categories such as market segments, geographies, types, technology and applications. For more information, please e-mail us at sales@persistencemarketresearch.com About Us Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a U.S.-based full-service market intelligence firm specializing in syndicated research, custom research, and consulting services. 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  25. A victim of brain injury can experience many consequences and complications as a result of brain damage. Unfortunately, the problems caused by a traumatic brain injury can extend even beyond what most people think of as the standard symptoms of a brain injury, like mood change and cognitive impairment. One issue which can occur is pituitary dysfunction. If the pituitary gland is damaged due to injury to the brain, the consequences can be dramatic as the pituitary gland works together with the hypothalamus to control every hormonal aspect of a person’s body. Pituitary dysfunction as a result of a brain injury can be difficult to diagnose, as you may not immediately connect your symptoms to the head injury you experienced. If you did suffer injury to the pituitary gland, you need to know about it so you can get proper treatment. If someone else caused your brain injury to occur, you also want to know about your pituitary dysfunction so you can receive compensation for costs and losses associated with this serious health problem. The pituitary is a small area of the center of your brain that is about the size of the uvula. The pituitary is surrounded and guarded by bone, but it does hang down. When it becomes damaged as a result of a brain injury, the damage normally occurs as a result of the fact the pituitary was affected by reduced by reduced blood flow. It can also be harmed directly from the trauma, and only a tiny amount of damage can cause profound consequences. Many of the important hormones that your body needs are controlled by the pituitary working with the hypothalamus. If the pituitary is damaged, the result can include a deficiency of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). This deficiency can affect your heart and can impact bone development. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) can also be affected, which could result in hypothyroidism. Sex hormones (gonodotropin); Adrenocorticotopic hormone; and many other hormones could be impacted as well, causing fertility problems; muscle loss; sexual dysfunction; kidney problems; fatigue; or even death. Unfortunately, problems with the pituitary gland may not always be visible on MRIs or other imaging tests because the pituitary is so small. Endocrinologists who handle hormone therapy frequently are not familiar with brain injuries, and may not make the connection that your brain injury was the cause of the problem. If you begin to experience hormonal issues following an accident, you should be certain to get an accurate diagnosis to determine if your brain injury played a role. If it did, those responsible for causing the accident could be responsible for compensating you for the harm you have experienced to your pituitary and to the body systems which malfunction as a result of your new hormonal issues. Nelson Blair Langer Engle, PLLC From http://www.nblelaw.com/posts/pituitary-dysfunction-result-of-traumatic-brain-injury
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