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I'm going to make a very long story somewhat short here.... I have had all kinds of health issues over the last 10-12 years that has lead me to many Dr's, mis-diagnosis and giving up on figuring it out. Nov. 2018 my normal nausea and vomiting turned into turned into vomiting everything I ate or drank and by early Feb 2019 I ended up seeing my PCP. She sent me for an abdominal CT scan as well as to a Gastroenterologist. Blood work found nothing, gastric emptying study was only half completed because I got sick (but was normal). The CT scan however showed a 4.4CM adrenal adenoma on my left adrenal gland as well as a few small nodules in my left lung. I was sent for a follow up CT scan with contrast related to the adrenal nodule- adrenal mass 4.4cm HU13 washout 79%. I'm told this means that it's most likely not cancer or functioning. I really don't know anything and I move on. Still no relief to issues going on. I go to see an acupuncturist and during the consult they mentioned Cushings syndrome. I bring that up and my Dr blows me off. I requested a referral to an endocrinologist, and am told no. A few months pass with no change other than less control for diabetes. Dr. says I should see an endo, however the endocrinologist denied the referral. HMO's can be so horrible. So I appeal it, they decide to test my blood cortisol 8 am. It's normal. Appeal was denied, followed by two more appeals. The final appeal goes to an independent review board and they overturn HMO's ruling and I get to see an endo (this was just a couple weeks ago). Due to Covid they are only doing phone appointments so no exam, endo was nice but didn't really think too much of all my symptoms or anything. Kept referring back to radiology stating that it isn't cancer/functioning, but decides to run tests. His notes related to tests, as well as results are below. He was honestly irritated when I asked questions (mainly on ACTH, I asked what is considered low. He said there is no low ACTH), he mentioned he went to school an additional 6 years to be an endo..blah blah blah. I am taking dexamethasone tonight, hoping that will help. Am I crazy to keep pursuing? Dr's and honestly family make me feel like I am losing it, making symptoms up. etc. Screening overall negative - 24 hour urine free cortisol minimally elevated - - equivical results < 2 x ULN and not consistent with cushing's syndrome. No change in her symptoms Overall based on past work up and imaging - suggest this is a benign, non functional adenoma. Given size - would merit annual biochemical screening and 1-2 imaging.... TOTAL TESTOSTERONE 4 ng/dL DHEA SO4 24 mcg/dL CORTISOL 7.9 mcg/dL ACTH 7 pg/mL 24 hr URINE FREE CORTISOL 96.3 mcg/24hr (H) TSH 2.17 mcIU/mL NORMETANEPHRINE, 24 HR URINE 469 mcg/24hr METANEPHRINE, TOTAL, 24H, URINE 505 mcg/24hr METANEPHRINE 24 HR UR 36 mcg/24hr (L) ALDOSTERONE 5 ng/dL RENIN ACTIVITY 2.63 ng/mL/hr ALDOSTERONE/RENIN RATIO 1.9 ratio
Abstract Despite various approaches to immunoassay and chromatography for monitoring cortisol concentrations, conventional methods require bulky external equipment, which limits their use as mobile health care systems. Here, we describe a human pilot trial of a soft, smart contact lens for real-time detection of the cortisol concentration in tears using a smartphone. A cortisol sensor formed using a graphene field-effect transistor can measure cortisol concentration with a detection limit of 10 pg/ml, which is low enough to detect the cortisol concentration in human tears. In addition, this soft contact lens only requires the integration of this cortisol sensor with transparent antennas and wireless communication circuits to make a smartphone the only device needed to operate the lens remotely without obstructing the wearer’s view. Furthermore, in vivo tests using live rabbits and the human pilot experiment confirmed the good biocompatibility and reliability of this lens as a noninvasive, mobile health care solution. INTRODUCTION The steroid hormone, cortisol, which is known as a stress hormone, is secreted by the adrenal gland when people are stressed psychologically or physically (1). This secretion occurs when the adrenal gland is stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland when it is stimulated by the corticotropin-releasing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. This serial cortisol secretion system is referred to as a hypothalamus–pituitary gland–adrenal gland axis, which is affected by chronic stress, resulting in abnormal secretion of cortisol (2, 3). The accumulation of cortisol caused by the abnormal secretion of cortisol increases the concentrations of fat and amino acid, which can result in diverse severe diseases (e.g., Cushing’s disease, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular complications, and type 2 diabetes) and neurological disorders (such as depression and anxiety disorders) (2–7). In contrast, abnormally low cortisol levels can lead to Addison’s disease, which results in hypercholesterolemia, weight loss, and chronic fatigue (8). In addition, it was recently reported that plasma cortisol can be correlated to the prognosis of traumatic brain injury (9). Furthermore, the extent of cortisol secretion varies from person to person, and it changes continuously (10, 11). Thus, developing health care systems for real-time monitoring of the cortisol level has been explored extensively over the past decade as the key to the quantitative analysis of stress levels. Although various efforts have led to the development of cortisol sensors that can measure the concentration of cortisol in blood, saliva, sweat, hair, urine, and interstitial fluid (12–17), the accurate measurement of cortisol concentrations has been limited because of the difficulties associated with the transportation and storage of cortisol as well as the instability of the biologically active cortisol in these body fluids at room temperature. In addition, these conventional sensing methods require bulky equipment for the extraction and analysis of these body fluids, which is not suitable for mobile health care systems (12, 18). Therefore, the development of noninvasive and wearable sensors that can monitor cortisol concentration accurately is highly desirable for a smart health care solution. For example, the immunoassay method, which uses an antigen-antibody binding reaction, has been used extensively for electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using saliva and interstitial fluid, except tears (12, 14, 19). However, these immunosensors still require the use of bulky impedance analyzers for the analysis of the Nyquist plot from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique can be used as an alternative approach for sensing cortisol, additional bulky electrochemical instruments still are necessary for analyzing the CV curves (13, 14, 19). Recently, wearable forms of cortisol sensors that use sweat were developed (15), but they still required bulky measurement equipment (15, 16). Therefore, portable and smart sensors that can monitor the accurate concentration of cortisol in real time are highly desirable for use in mobile health care. Among the various body fluids, tears, in particular, contain important biomarkers, including cortisol (20, 21). Thus, the integration of biosensors with contact lenses is a potentially attractive candidate for the noninvasive and real-time monitoring of these biomarkers from tears (22–25). However, an approach for fabricating a smart contact lens for sensing the cortisol in tears has not been demonstrated previously. Thus, here, we present an extraordinary approach for the formation of a smart, soft contact lens that enables remote, real-time monitoring of the cortisol level in the wearer’s tears using mobile phones. This smart, soft contact lens is composed of a cortisol sensor, a wireless antenna, capacitors, resistors, and integrated circuit chips that use stretchable interconnects without obstructing the wearer’s view. The components of this device (except the antenna) were protected from mechanical deformations by locating each of the components on discrete, rigid islands and by embedding these islands inside an elastic layer. A graphene field-effect transistor (FET; with the binding of monoclonal antibody) was used as this cortisol immunosensor, which exhibited a sufficiently low detection limit, i.e., 10 pg/ml, for its sensing of cortisol in human tears in which the cortisol concentration ranges from 1 to 40 ng/ml (26). This sensor was integrated with a near-field communication (NFC) chip and antenna inside the soft contact lens for the real-time wireless transmission of the data to the user’s mobile device (e.g., a smart phone or a smart watch). The antenna occupies a relatively large area of this soft lens, so it requires its high stretchability, good transparency, and low resistance for operating a standard NFC chip at 13.56 MHz. In our approach, the hybrid random networks of ultralong silver nanofibers (AgNFs) and fine silver nanowires (AgNWs) enabled high transparency and good stretchability of this antenna and its low sheet resistance for reliable standard NFCs (at 13.56 MHz) inside this smart contact lens. Thus, the fully integrated system of this smart contact lens provided wireless and battery-free operation for the simultaneous detection and transmission of the cortisol concentration from tears to a mobile phone using standard NFC. In addition, a human pilot trial and in vivo tests conducted using live rabbits demonstrated the biocompatibility of this lens, and its safety against inflammation and thermal/electromagnetic field radiation suggests its substantial usability as a noninvasive, mobile health care solution. RESULTS Cortisol immunosensor A graphene FET sensor was fabricated by binding the cortisol monoclonal antibody (C-Mab) to the surface of graphene for the immunosensing of cortisol. Here, graphene acts as a transducer that converts the interaction between cortisol and C-Mab into electrical signals. Figure 1A shows the immobilization process of C-Mab to graphene. Immobilization proceeds through amide bonding of the C-Mab onto the carboxyl group of the graphene surface via the EDC [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride]/NHS (N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide) coupling reaction. A chemical vapor deposition–synthesized graphene layer was transferred onto a desired substrate and exposed to ultraviolet ozone (UVO) to activate the surface of the graphene with the carboxylate group. Figure S1 shows the contact angle between this surface of the graphene and a droplet of deionized (DI) water. Longer exposure time to UVO can decrease the hydrophobicity of graphene with decreasing the contact angle. Table S1 shows the increase in the electrical resistance of graphene that resulted from this UVO treatment. In our experiment, 2 min of exposure time to UVO decreased the contact angle from 70° to 38° without increasing the resistance of the graphene notably. UVO exposure times longer than this threshold time degraded the resistance of the graphene excessively, so the time of exposure of our samples to UVO was limited to 2 min. Figure S2A illustrates the process of immobilizing C-Mab through the EDC/NHS coupling reaction. This two-step coupling reaction of EDC and NHS can mediate the amide bonding between the carboxylate group of the UVO-exposed graphene and the amine group of the protein (12, 17, 27, 28). Here, EDC forms reactive O-acylisourea ester, thereby making the surface unstable. This O-acylisourea ester reacts with the NHS to form amine-reactive NHS ester with the surface still remaining semistable. Then, C-Mab with the amine group reacts with the amine-reactive NHS ester, thereby forming stable amide bonding that can immobilize C-Mab to the NHS on the surface of the graphene. Figure S2B shows the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectra of the DI water after the cortisol sensor had been immersed for 24 hours. The spectra of the DI water in which the sensor was immersed were not significantly different from those of the pristine DI water. However, the C-Mab solution that had a concentration of 1 μg/ml had a significant peak intensity in the range of 3000 to 2800 cm−1, representing the N-H bonding in the C-Mab. These results indicated that C-Mab formed stable bonding on the carboxylated graphene and was negligibly detached by exposure to water. From https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/28/eabb2891