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  1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aace.2021.10.004Get rights and content Under a Creative Commons license open access Highlights • Cushing’s Disease (CD) in pregnancy is rare, but poses many risks to the mother and fetus • Although surgery is still considered first line, this CASE highlights the successful use of metyrapone throughout pregnancy to manage CD in patients where surgery is considered high risk or low likelihood of cure • The dose of metyrapone can be titrated to a goal urinary free cortisol of < 150 ug/24 hours given the known rise in cortisol during gestation • Though no fetal adverse events have been reported, metyrapone does cross the placenta and long-term effects are unknown. ABSTRACT Background Cushing Disease (CD) in pregnancy is a rare, but serious, disease that adversely impacts maternal and fetal outcomes. As the sole use of metyrapone in the management of CD has been rarely reported, we describe our experience using it to treat a pregnant patient with CD. Case Report 34-year-old woman with hypertension who was diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent CD based on a urinary free cortisol (UFC) of 290 μg/24hr (reference 6-42μg/dL) and abnormal dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol 12.4 μg/dL) before becoming pregnant. She conceived naturally 12 weeks post-transsphenoidal surgery, and was subsequently found to have persistent disease with UFC 768μg/dL. Surgery was deemed high risk given the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery and high likelihood of residual disease. Instead, she was managed with metyrapone throughout her pregnancy and titrated to goal UFC of <150μg/24hr due to the known physiologic rise in cortisol during gestation. The patient had diet-controlled gestational diabetes, and well-controlled hypertension. She gave birth at 37 weeks gestation to a healthy baby boy, without adrenal insufficiency in the baby or mother. Discussion This CASE highlights the successful use of metyrapone throughout pregnancy to manage CD in patients where surgery is considered high risk or low likelihood of cure. While metyrapone is effective, close surveillance is required for worsening hypertension, hypokalemia, and potential adrenal insufficiency. Though no fetal adverse events have been reported, this medication crosses the placenta and long-term effects are unknown. Conclusion We describe a CASE of CD during pregnancy that was successfully treated with metyrapone. Key words Cushing disease metyrapone pregnancy cortisol INTRODUCTION Cushing disease (CD) is caused by endogenous overproduction of glucocorticoids due to hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by a pituitary adenoma. CD in pregnancy is very rare, and when it occurs, it is considered a high-risk pregnancy with many potential adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus.1 Infertility is common in CD due to cortisol and androgen excess leading to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.1 Due to the rarity of CD in pregnancy, there is little guidance in terms of treatment for this patient population. Similar to non-pregnant patients, the first-line treatment is transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection, with medical therapy as a second-line treatment option. This report presents a CASE that highlights the use of metyrapone, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, as a sole therapy in cases where surgery is deemed to be high risk and unlikely curative due to location of the tumor. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and infertility for six years presented to endocrinology for evaluation. Aside from difficulty conceiving, her only complaints were nausea and easy bruising. On exam she did not have clinical features of CD –abdominal violaceous striae, moon facies or a dorsocervical fat pad were absent. Her laboratory results revealed an elevated prolactin level (50-60ng/mL, reference range 1.4-24), an elevated ACTH level (61 pg/mL, reference range 0-46), and low FSH and LH levels (1.7mIU/mL and 1.76mIU/mL, respectively). Further testing demonstrated an elevated urinary free cortisol level (UFC) (290μg/24 hour, reference range 6-42) and her cortisol failed to suppress on a 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol 12.4μg/dL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary with and without contrast showed a T2 hyperintense, hypoenhancing lesion within the right side of the sella touching the right cavernous internal carotid artery measuring 8x8x9 mm consistent with a pituitary adenoma (Figure 1). Download : Download high-res image (247KB) Download : Download full-size image Figure 1. Caption: T1 weighted post gadolinium coronal image of the pituitary gland with a small hypoenhancing lesion within the right side of the sella. After the presumed diagnosis of CD was made, she was referred to neurosurgery for transsphenoidal resection of the adenoma, which she underwent a few months later. Intra-operatively, a white friable tumor was found, and otherwise the surgery was uneventful. Three months later, however, she was found to have a persistent 8x8x9mm hypoenhancing lesion extending laterally over the right cavernous carotid artery on MRI. The mass approximated but did not contact the right intracranial optic nerve. The pathology from resected tissue was consistent with normal pituitary tissue with staining for growth hormone (80%), ACTH (30%), prolactin (40%), follicle stimulating hormone (5%), luteinizing hormone (40%) and thyroid stimulating hormone (15%), proving the surgery to have been unsuccessful. Twelve weeks post-operatively, the patient discovered she was pregnant. At 12 weeks gestation, her UFC was 768μg/24h and two midnight salivary cortisol levels were elevated at 0.175 and 0.625μg/dL (reference <0.010-0.090). She was experiencing easy bruising and taking labetalol 400 mg twice daily for hypertension. She had gained 10 pounds by 12 weeks gestation. A second transsphenoidal surgery during pregnancy was deemed high risk, with a high likelihood of residual disease due to the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery. The decision was made to treat the patient medically with metyrapone which was started at 250 mg twice per day at 12 weeks gestation and was eventually uptitrated based on UFC levels every 3-4 weeks (goal of <150μg /24h) to 1000 mg three times per day by the time of delivery with an eventual UFC level of 120μg/24h (Figure 2) . Morning ACTH and serum cortisol levels were monitored for potential adrenal insufficiency. Download : Download high-res image (375KB) Download : Download full-size image Figure 2. Caption: This figure depicts the patient’s 24 hour urinary cortisol levels over time as well as the titration of metyrapone dosage in mg/day. Her hypertension was well controlled throughout pregnancy on labetalol with the addition of nifedipine XL 30mg daily in the second trimester. She remained normokalemic with potassium ranging from 3.8-4.1mEq/L. She was diagnosed with gestational diabetes at 24 weeks by an abnormal two-step oral glucose tolerance test, which was diet-controlled. The patient was induced at 37 weeks gestation due to cervical insufficiency with cerclage in place, and was given stress dose steroids along with metyrapone. She delivered a healthy baby boy vaginally without complications. His Apgar scores were 9 and 9 and he weighed 6 pounds and 5 ounces. At the time of delivery and one week later, the baby’s cortisol levels were normal (6 μg/dL, normal 4-20), without evidence of adrenal insufficiency. The patient’s metyrapone dose was reduced to 500mg three times a day after pregnancy and her 2 month postpartum 24 hour UFC was 42μg/24hr. The patient stopped the metyrapone on her own four months later and her UFC was found to be elevated at 272ug/24hr (normal 6-42μg/24hr). An MRI one year postpartum revealed a 10x10x9 mm adenoma in the right sella with some suprasellar extension without compression of the optic chiasm, but with abutment of the right carotid artery. Due to the persistently elevated cortisol, large size of the tumor, and potential for cure, especially if followed by radiation therapy, a second transsphenoidal surgery was recommended. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic the patient underwent a delayed surgery 1.5 years postpartum. The pathology was consistent with a pituitary adenoma that stained strongly and diffusely for ACTH and synaptophysin, only. Her postoperative day 2 cortisol was 1.1μg/dL (reference range 6.7-22.6) and hydrocortisone 20mg in the morning and 10mg in the afternoon was started. She remains on hydrocortisone replacement and went on to conceive again, one month after her second surgery. DISCUSSION We describe a patient with pre-existing CD who became pregnant and was managed successfully with metyrapone throughout her pregnancy. Although CD is rare in pregnancy, it can occur, and poses risks to both the mother and fetus.1,2 Potential maternal complications include hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, fractures and more uncommonly, cardiac failure, psychiatric disorders, infection and maternal death.1,2 There is also increased fetal morbidity including prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and less commonly CD can lead to stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death and hypoadrenalism.1,2 It is, therefore, imperative that these patients receive prompt care to control cortisol levels. The treatment of CD in pregnancy is challenging as there are no large research trials studying the efficacy and safety of medications in CD during pregnancy. Pituitary surgery is first-line recommendation and should be done late in the first trimester or in the second trimester to prevent spontaneous pregnancy loss.3 In this CASE, however, it was felt that a second surgery would be high-risk given the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery and possibly not curative, and thus surgery was not a feasible option. She was therefore successfully managed with medical therapy with metyrapone alone throughout her pregnancy. Metyrapone use in pregnancy has been previously reported in the literature and has been shown to be effective in reducing cortisol levels.4,5,6 Although not approved for use in pregnancy, this steroidogenesis inhibitor is the most commonly used medication to treat Cushing’s syndrome in pregnant women.3,5 Due to metyrapone’s inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxylase, there is a buildup of steroidogenesis precursors such as 11-deoxycorticosterone, which can worsen hypertension, increase frequency of preeclampsia, and cause hypokalemia.3 Metyrapone also leads to elevation of adrenal androgens, which in conjunction with accumulation of 11-deoxycorticosterone, can cause hirsutism and virilization. 8 Though the use of Cabergoline has been reported in cases with Cushing disease during pregnancy, no long term safety data is available regarding it effects on pregnancy as well as the fetus. Moreover, studies assessing the effect of cabergoline in persistent or recurrent CD show a response rate of 20-30% only in cases with mild hypercortisolism. 9 There is no consensus on how to medically treat patients with CD during pregnancy. We chose a goal UFC of <150μg/24 hours because of the physiological rise of cortisol to two to three times the upper limit of normal during pregnancy.3,7 During pregnancy, there is an increase in corticotropin-releasing hormone from the placenta, which is identical in structure to the hypothalamic form.7 This leads to increased levels of ACTH which stimulates the maternal adrenal glands to become slightly hypertrophic and accounts for the rise in serum cortisol levels in pregnancy.7 Corticosteroid-binding globulin also increases in pregnancy, along with serum free cortisol, leading to urinary free cortisol increasing to 3-fold the normal range.7 We therefore aimed to keep our patient’s urinary free cortisol approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal on our assay, to maintain normal cortisol levels for pregnancy. Close surveillance of patients is required for worsening hypertension, hypokalemia, and potential adrenal insufficiency.3 Although no fetal adverse events from metyrapone have been reported, the medication does cross the placenta, leading to the potential for fetal adrenal insufficiency, and long-term effects are unknown.3 CONCLUSION This CASE demonstrates the successful use of metyrapone alone to treat CD throughout pregnancy resulting in the birth of a healthy baby without adrenal insufficiency. These cases are particularly challenging given the lack of FDA-approved therapies and the lack of consensus on directing titration of medications and the duration of therapy. Uncited reference 4., 6.. REFERENCES: 1 T. Brue, V. Amodru, F. Castinetti MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy: solved and unsolved questions Eur J Endocrinol, 178 (6) (2018 Jun), pp. R259-R266, 10.1530/EJE-17-1058 Epub 2018 Mar 9. PMID: 29523633 View PDF CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 2 F. Caimari, E. Valassi, P. Garbayo, C. Steffensen, A. Santos, R. Corcoy, S.M. Webb Cushing's syndrome and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of published cases Endocrine, 55 (2) (2017 Feb), pp. 555-563, 10.1007/s12020-016-1117-0 Epub 2016 Oct 4. PMID: 27704478 View PDF CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 3 M.D. Bronstein, M.C. Machado, M.C. Fragoso MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Management of pregnant patients with Cushing's syndrome Eur J Endocrinol, 173 (2) (2015 Aug), pp. R85-91, 10.1530/EJE-14-1130 Epub 2015 Apr 14. PMID: 25872515 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 4 Azzola A, Eastabrook G, Matsui D, Berberich A, Tirona RG, Gray D, Gallego P, Van Uum S. Adrenal Cushing Syndrome Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Successful Medical Management With Metyrapone. J Endocr Soc. 2020 Nov 5;5(1):bvaa167. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa167. PMID: 33305159; PMCID: PMC7712789. Google Scholar 5 W.H. Lim, D.J. Torpy, W.S. Jeffries The medical management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 168 (1) (2013 May), pp. 1-6, 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.015 Epub 2013 Jan 8. PMID: 23305861 ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 6 Gormley MJ, Hadden DR, Kennedy TL, Montgomery DA, Murnaghan GA, Sheridan B. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy--treatment with metyrapone. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1982 Mar;16(3):283-293. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.1982.tb00718.x. PMID: 7074978. Google Scholar 7 M.C. Machado, M.C.B.V. Fragoso, M.D. Bronstein Pregnancy in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 47 (2) (2018 Jun), pp. 441-449, 10.1016/j.ecl.2018.02.004 PMID: 29754643 ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 8 Jeffcoate WJ, Rees LH, Tomlin S, Jones AE, Edwards CR, Besser GM. Metyrapone in long-term management of Cushing's disease. Br Med J. 1977 Jul 23;2(6081):215-217. doi: 10.1136/bmj.2.6081.215. PMID: 195666; PMCID: PMC1631369. Google Scholar 9 Stalldecker G, Mallea-Gil MS, Guitelman M, Alfieri A, Ballarino MC, Boero L, Chervin A, Danilowicz K, Diez S, Fainstein-Day P, García-Basavilbaso N, Glerean M, Gollan V, Katz D, Loto MG, Manavela M, Rogozinski AS, Servidio M, Vitale NM. Effects of cabergoline on pregnancy and embryo-fetal development: retrospective study on 103 pregnancies and a review of the literature. Pituitary. 2010 Dec;13(4):345-350. doi: 10.1007/s11102-010-0243-6. PMID: 20676778. Google Scholar Clinical Relevance: Cushing’s Disease (CD) in pregnancy is a rare, but serious, disease that has potential adverse effects on maternal and fetal health. Surgery is considered first line therapy, and there is little consensus on medical treatment of CD in pregnancy. This CASE demonstrates the successful use and titration of metyrapone throughout pregnancy. From https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2376060521001164
  2. Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol. Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc. Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient. Get Sample Copy of this Report @ https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/14155 Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide. Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. For entire list of market players, request for Table of content here @ https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/14155 The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types: By Drug Type Ketoconazole Mitotane Aminoglutethimide Metyrapone Mifepristone Etomidate Pasireotide By End User Hospital Pharmacies Retail Pharmacies Drug Stores Clinics e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA). North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region. Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period. Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share. The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to categories such as market segments, geographies, types, technology and applications.
  3. HRA Pharma Rare Diseases, an affiliate of privately-held French healthcare company HRA Pharma, has revealed data from the six-month extension of PROMPT, the first ever prospective study designed to evaluate metyrapone long-term efficacy and tolerability in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. After confirming good efficacy and safety of metyrapone in the first phase of the study that ran for 12 weeks, the results of the six-month extension showed that metyrapone successfully maintains low urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels with good tolerability. The data will be presented at the European Congress of Endocrinology 2021 next week. Metyrapone is approved in Europe for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. It works by inhibiting the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme, the final step in cortisol synthesis. From https://www.thepharmaletter.com/in-brief/brief-metyrapone-effective-and-safe-in-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome-in-long-term-says-hra-pharma-rare-diseases
  4. The first ever prospective study to test the safety and efficacy of metyrapone in patients with Cushing’s Syndrome in a real-life setting has shown successful results. HRA Pharma Rare Diseases SAS, of Paris, has presented data from PROMPT, the first ever prospective study designed to confirm metyrapone efficacy and good tolerance in patients with endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome, with results confirming that metyrapone controlled 80% of the patients at week 12 with either normalisation or at least 50% decrease of urinary free cortisol. These initial results are being published to coincide with HRA Pharma Rare Diseases’ participation in the e-ECE conference 2020. Cushing’s Syndrome is a rare condition where patients have too much cortisol in their blood. Endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome is most often caused by hormone-releasing tumours of the adrenal or the pituitary glands. To manage this condition, controlling high cortisol levels in patients is important. Successful results with metyrapone Metyrapone is an inhibitor of the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme, which majorly contributes to cortisol synthesis and is approved in Europe for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome based on observational retrospective studies published over more than 50 years. As this prospective study took place over five years from April 2015 to April 2020, the longitudinal format reduced potential sources of bias and helped determine the risk factors of metyrapone when compared to the previous retrospective studies. The first results of this study showed that at the end of the 12 weeks, metyrapone therapy is a rapid-onset, effective and safe medical treatment in patients living with the syndrome. Evelina Paberze, COO of HRA Pharma Rare Diseases, said: “At HRA Pharma Rare Diseases, we are dedicated to building comprehensive evidence of our products. The first results of this prospective study clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of metyrapone in treating Cushing’s Syndrome.” The next set of data on the six-month optional extension is awaiting confirmation and the full study with the final results will be published next year. Frederique Welgryn, Managing Director of HRA Pharma Rare Diseases, added: “Cushing’s Syndrome is a chronic disease that can lead to deterioration in patients’ conditions if not treated appropriately. We are thrilled to announce that this first prospective study verifies that metyrapone is both an effective and safe way to treat endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome. This is a big step given the high unmet medical need for patients with endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome.” From https://www.healtheuropa.eu/study-shows-metyrapone-effective-for-treating-rare-cushings-syndrome/102584/
  5. Metyrapone treatments helped patients with Cushing syndrome reach normal, urinary-free cortisol levels in the short-term and also had long-term benefits, according to a study published in Endocrine. This observational, longitudinal study evaluated the effects of the 11β -hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone on adult patients with Cushing syndrome. Urinary-free cortisol and late-night salivary cortisol levels were evaluated in 31 patients who were already treated with metyrapone to monitor cortisol normalization and rhythm. The average length of metyrapone treatment was 9 months, and 6 patients had 24 months of treatment. After 1 month of treatment, the mean urinary-free cortisol was reduced from baseline by 67% and mean late-night salivary cortisol level decreased by 57%. Analyzing only patients with severe hypercortisolism, after 1 month of treatment, the mean urinary-free cortisol decreased by 86% and the mean late-night salivary cortisol level decreased 80%. After 3 months, normalization of the mean urinary-free cortisol was established in 68% of patients. Mean late-night salivary cortisol levels took longer to decrease, especially in severe and very severe hypercortisolism, which could take 6 months to drop. Treatment was more successful at normalizing cortisol excretion (70%) than cortisol rhythm (37%). Nausea, abdominal pain, and dizziness were the most common adverse events, but no severe adverse event was reported. Future research is needed to evaluate a larger cohort with randomized dosages and stricter inclusion criteria to evaluate metyrapone's effects on cortisol further. Study researchers conclude that metyrapone was successful and safe in lowering urinary-free cortisol after just 1 month of treatment and controlling long-term levels in patients with Cushing syndrome. This study was supported by Novartis. Reference Ceccato F, Zilio M, Barbot M, et al. Metyrapone treatment in Cushing's syndrome: a real-life study [published online July 16, 2018]. Endocrine. doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1675-4 From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/general-endocrinology/metyrapone-cushing-syndrome/article/786716/
  6. Measuring cortisol levels in saliva multiple times a day is a convenient and useful way to determine the best course of treatment for patients with Cushing’s syndrome, a preliminary study shows. The research, “Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations,” appeared in the journal Frontiers of Endocrinology. Prompt and effective treatment for hypercortisolism — the excessive amount of cortisol in the blood — is essential to lowering the risk of Cushing’s-associated conditions, including infections, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Steroid hormone inhibitors, such as HRA Pharma’s Metopirone (metyrapone), have been used significantly in Cushing’s syndrome patients. These therapies not only suppress cortisol levels, but also avoid adrenal insufficiency (where not enough cortisol is produced) and restore the circadian rhythm, which is disrupted in Cushing’s patients. However, effective medical treatment requires monitoring cortisol activity throughout the day. Salivary measurements of cortisol are a well-known method for diagnosing and predicting the risk of recurrence of Cushing’s syndrome. The method is convenient for patients and can be done in outpatient clinics. However, the medical field lacks data on whether measuring cortisol in saliva works for regulating treatment. Researchers analyzed the effectiveness of salivary cortisol measurements for determining the best dosage and treatment timing of Cushing’s patients with Metopirone. The study included six patients, three with cortisol-secreting masses in the adrenal glands and and three with ACTH (or adrenocorticotropin)-secreting adenomas in the pituitary glands, taking Metopirone. Investigators collected samples before and during treatment to assess morning serum cortisol and urinary free cortisol (UFC). Patients also had salivary cortisol assessments five times throughout the day. Saliva samples were collected at 6 a.m. (wake-up time), 8 a.m. (before breakfast), noon (before lunch), 6 p.m. (before dinner), and 10 p.m. (before sleep). Other studies have used UFC assessments to monitor treatment. However, the inability of this parameter to reflect changes in diurnal cortisol requires alternative approaches. Results showed that although UFC was normalized in five out of six patients, multiple salivary cortisol measurements showed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. Whereas patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma showed elevated cortisol levels throughout the day, those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma revealed increased levels mainly in the morning. This finding indicates that “the significance of elevated morning cortisol levels is different depending on the disease etiology,” the researchers wrote. In a prospective case study to better assess the effectiveness of performing multiple salivary cortisol assessments, the research team analyzed one of the participants who had excessive cortisol production that was not controlled with four daily doses of Metoripone (a daily total of 2,250 mg). Results revealed that cortisol levels increased before each dosage. After the patient’s treatment regimen was changed to a 2,500 mg dose divided into five daily administrations, researchers observed a significant improvement in the diurnal cortisol pattern, as well as in UFC levels. Subsequent analysis revealed that performing multiple salivary cortisol measurements helps with a more precise assessment of excess cortisol than analyzing UFC levels, or performing a unique midnight salivary cortisol collection, the researchers said. Although more studies are required, the results “suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful tool to visualize the diurnal cortisol rhythm and to determine the dose and timing of metyrapone [Metopirone] during the treatment in patients with [Cushing’s syndrome],” the researchers wrote. Future studies should include a larger sample size, evaluate changes over a longer term, use a standardized protocol for treatment dosing and timing, and evaluate changes in a patient’s quality of life, the investigators said. From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/02/15/multiple-saliva-cortisol-checks-cushings-metyrapone-study/
  7. Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol. Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc. Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient. Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide. Request to View Tables of Content @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/14155 Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types: By Drug Type Ketoconazole Mitotane Aminoglutethimide Metyrapone Mifepristone Etomidate Pasireotide By End User Hospital Pharmacies Retail Pharmacies Drug Stores Clinics e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period. Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA). North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region. Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period. Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share. 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