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Found 12 results

  1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2022.101455 Abstract Purpose To report the clinical course of a patient with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) secondary to subclinical hypercortisolism before and after adrenalectomy. Observations A 50-year-old female patient with multifocal, chronic CSCR was found to have an adrenal incidentaloma and was diagnosed with subclinical hypercortisolism. Patient elected to undergo minimally-invasive adrenalectomy and presented at 3 months after surgery without subretinal fluid. Conclusions and Importance Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome (SCS) may present an underrecognized risk factor for developing chronic CSCR. Further investigation is needed to determine the threshold of visual comorbidity that may influence surgical management. Keywords Central serous chorioretinopathy Subclinical Cushing's syndrome Hypercortisolism Adrenalectomy Retina Surgical intervention 1. Introduction Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is characterized by accumulation of fluid in the subretinal or sub-RPE space, often with consequential visual impairment. Chronic CSCR has been reported as a manifestation of hypercortisolism due to Cushing's syndrome and subclinical hypercortisolism.1,2 However, the latter is often underrecognized owing to its inherently subtle nature and the optimal threshold for intervention based on associated comorbidities remains unclear. Herein we report the clinical course of a patient with CSCR secondary to subclinical hypercortisolism before and after adrenalectomy. 2. Case report A 50-year-old female presented with blurred, discolored spots in the right eye for several months. Her past medical history included mild hypertension treated with amlodipine. Past ocular and family history were noncontributory. On exam, Snellen visual acuity was 20/50 OD, 20/25 OS. Her pupils, intraocular pressure, and anterior segment exam were within normal limits. Dilated fundus exam revealed bilateral, multifocal areas of subretinal fluid and mottled pigmentary changes (Fig. 1A). Optical coherence tomography confirmed areas of subretinal fluid and other areas of outer retinal atrophy (Fig. 1B). Fundus autofluorescence revealed areas of hyperautofluorescence that highlighted the fundoscopic findings (Fig. 1C). Fluorescein angiography showed multifocal areas of expansile dot leakage (Fig. 1D). Altogether these findings were consistent with multifocal, chronic CSCR. Download : Download high-res image (1MB) Download : Download full-size image Fig. 1. Multimodal imaging of bilateral multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy. Fundus photographs reveal multifocal subretinal fluid and pigmentary changes (Fig. 1A). Optical coherence tomography demonstrates subretinal fluid and outer retinal atrophy (Fig. 1B). Areas of hyperautofluorescence highlight the fundoscopic findings of subretinal fluid (Fig. 1C). Fluorescein angiography showing multiple areas of expansile dot leakage (Fig. 1D). On further clinical follow-up, an adrenal incidentaloma (AI) was detected when the patient underwent imaging for back pain. Subsequently she saw an endocrinologist; she had a normal serum cortisol, but low ACTH and an abnormal dexamethasone suppression test. This led to a diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism and provided a reason for her hypertension and chronic CSCR. Since the blur and relative scotomata interfered with her daily activities, she elected to try eplerenone, which yielded a moderate but suboptimal therapeutic response at 50 mg daily. While contemplating photodynamic therapy, in discussion with her endocrinologist, the patient opted to undergo minimally-invasive adrenalectomy. At last follow-up 3 months after surgery and 6 years after her initial presentation, she has been off eplerenone and without subretinal fluid (Fig. 2). Download : Download high-res image (1MB) Download : Download full-size image Fig. 2. Optical coherence tomography imaging at presentation and at last follow-up 3 months after adrenalectomy. There is a significant improvement in subretinal fluid in both eyes, though outer retinal irregularity remains. 3. Discussion CSCR has previously been associated with many risk factors including exposure to excess steroid. A recent study analyzing a nationally representative dataset of 35,000 patients found that patients with CSCR had a higher odds of Cushing's syndrome (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.59, p = 0.002) than exposure to exogenous steroids (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19, p < 0.001)1 Our case highlights the importance of thorough medication reconciliation and careful consideration of comorbid conditions in patients with chronic CSCR. In recent years, subtle endogenous hypercortisolism, termed subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS), has been of particular interest in the endocrinology literature because it can be a challenging diagnosis and the most appropriate management remains controversial.3 In general, SCS is comprised of: 1) the presence of an adrenal incidentaloma or mass, 2) biochemical confirmation of cortisol excess, and 3) no classic phenotypic manifestations of Cushing's syndrome.4 Since adrenal incidentaloma has an estimated prevalence of 1–8% of the population,5 it is quite possible that SCS is an underrecognized risk factor for CSCR. SCS may potentiate metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis; studies have found that surgical resection of adrenal incidentalomas improve weight, blood pressure, and glucose control. Consequently, some authors recommend those with SCS-associated comorbidities be considered for resection.6 An important consideration in these patients is how visual comorbidity factors into intervention. In our patient's case, the recurrent CSCR, hypertension, and increased risk of metabolic syndrome were sufficient reasons to elect to have surgery. 4. Conclusion In summary, SCS is a condition of subtle cortisol dysregulation that may represent an underrecognized risk factor for chronic CSCR. Further investigation is needed to determine the threshold of visual comorbidity that may influence surgical management. Patient consent Consent to publish the case report was not obtained. This report does not contain any personal information that could lead to the identification of the patient. Acknowledgments and Disclosures Grant support was from the J. Arch McNamara Retina Research Fund. The following authors have no financial disclosures: RRS, AS, AC All authors attest that they meet the current ICMJE criteria for Authorship. No other contributions to acknowledge. References 1 M. Zhou, S.J. Bakri, S. Pershing Risk factors for incident central serous retinopathy: case-control analysis of a US national managed care population Br J Ophthalmol, 103 (12) (2019), pp. 1784-1788, 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-313050 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 2 S.N. Appa Subclinical hypercortisolism in central serous chorioretinopathy Retin Cases Brief Rep, 8 (4) (2014), pp. 310-313, 10.1097/ICB.0000000000000036 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 3 I. Chiodini, A. Albani, A.G. Ambrogio, et al. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome Endocrine, 56 (2) (2017), pp. 262-266, 10.1007/s12020-016-1017-3 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 4 M.A. Zeiger, G.B. Thompson, Q.-Y. Duh, et al. American association of clinical endocrinologists and American association of endocrine surgeons medical guidelines for the management of adrenal incidentalomas: executive summary of recommendations Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol, 15 (5) (2009), pp. 450-453, 10.4158/EP.15.5.450 ArticleDownload PDFGoogle Scholar 5 M. Terzolo, A. Stigliano, I. Chiodini, et al. AME position statement on adrenal incidentaloma Eur J Endocrinol, 164 (6) (2011), pp. 851-870, 10.1530/EJE-10-1147 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 6 L.B. Hsieh, E. Mackinney, T.S. Wang When to intervene for subclinical cushing's syndrome Surg Clin North Am, 99 (4) (2019), pp. 747-758, 10.1016/j.suc.2019.04.011 ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. From https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451993622002018?via%3Dihub#!
  2. https://doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.5337 Abstract A 50-year-old woman with adrenal Cushing's syndrome and chronic hepatitis C developed an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C before adrenectomy. After administration of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir was started, her transaminase levels normalized promptly and a rapid virological response also was achieved. Laparoscopic left adrenectomy was then performed safely. 1 INTRODUCTION Reports of reactivation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C associated with immunosuppressive therapy and cancer drug therapy are rarer than for hepatitis B virus (HBV) but have been made occasionally. In HBV infection, viral reactivation and acute hepatitis caused by an excess of endogenous cortisol due to Cushing's syndrome have been reported, but no acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C has been reported so far. Here, we report a case of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C during the course of adrenal Cushing's syndrome. 2 CASE REPORT A woman in her 50s underwent a CT scan at a nearby hospital to investigate treatment-resistant hypertension and was found to have a left adrenal mass. Her blood tests showed low ACTH and HCV antibody positivity, and she was referred to our hospital because she was suspected of having Cushing's syndrome and chronic hepatitis C. There is nothing special to note about her medical or family history. She had never smoked and drank very little. Her physical findings on admission were 164.5 cm tall, 92.6 kg in weight, and a BMI of 34.2 kg/m2. Her blood pressure was 179 / 73 mmHg, pulse 64 /min (rhythmic), body temperature 36.8°C, and respiratory rate 12 /min. She had findings of central obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, and red skin stretch marks. Her blood test findings (Table 1) showed an increase in ALT, HCV antibody positivity, and an HCV RNA concentration of 4.1 log IU/mL. The virus was genotype 2. Cortisol was within the reference range, but ACTH was as low, less than 1.5 pg/mL. Her bedtime cortisol level was 7.07 μg/dL, which was above her reference of 5 μg/dL, suggesting the loss of diurnal variation in cortisol secretion. Testing showed the amount of cortisol by 24-hour urine collection was 62.1 μg/day, and this level of cortisol secretion was maintained. In an overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, cortisol after loading was 6.61 μg/dL, which exceeded 5 μg/dL, suggesting that cortisol was autonomously secreted. Her contrast-enhanced CT scan (Figure 1) revealed a tumor with a major axis of about 30 mm in her left adrenal gland. MRI scans showed mild hyperintensity in the “in phase” (Figure 2A) and decreased signal in the “out of phase” (Figure 2B), suggesting her adrenal mass was an adenoma. Based on the above test results, she was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C and adrenal Cushing's syndrome. She agreed to receive treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) after resection of the left adrenal tumor. However, two months later, she had liver dysfunction with AST 116 U/L and ALT 213 U/L (Figure 3). HBV DNA was undetectable at the time of liver injury, but the HCV RNA concentration increased to 6.4 logIU/mL. Therefore, an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C was suspected, and a percutaneous liver biopsy was performed. The biopsy revealed an inflammatory cell infiltration, mostly composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells and mainly in the portal vein area (Figure 4). Fibrosis and interface hepatitis were also observed, and spotty necrosis was evident in the hepatic lobule. No clear fat deposits were found in the hepatocytes, ruling out NASH or NAFLD. According to the New Inuyama classification, hepatitis equivalent to A2-3/F1-2 was considered. Because HBV DNA was not detected, no new drug was used, and no cause of liver damage, such as biliary atresia, was found; the patient was diagnosed with liver damage due to reactivation of HCV, with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C. The treatment policy was changed, in order to treat hepatitis C before the left adrenal resection, and administration of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir was started. A blood test two weeks after the start of treatment confirmed normalization of AST and ALT, and a rapid virological response was achieved (Figure 3). Subsequently, HCV RNA remained negative, no liver damage was observed, and laparoscopic left adrenectomy was safely performed nine months after the initial diagnosis. The pathological findings were adrenal adenoma, and no atrophy was observed in the attached normal adrenal cortical gland. After the operation, hypertension improved and weight loss was obtained (92.6 kg (BMI: 34.2 kg/m2) before the operation, but 77.0 kg (BMI: 28.5 kg/m2) one year after the operation). ACTH increased, and the adrenal Cushing's syndrome was considered to have been cured. Regarding HCV infection, the sustained virological response has been maintained to date, more than 2 years after the completion of DAA therapy, and the follow-up continues. TABLE 1. Laboratory data on admission Hematology Chemistry WBC 6100 /μL TP 8.2 g/dL DHEA-S 48 /μL RBC 526 x 104 /μL Alb 3.4 g/dL PRA 0.7 ng/mL/h Hb 15.8 g/dL T-Bil 0.3 mg/dL ALD 189 pg/mL Ht 49.1 % AST 33 U/L PLT 25.5 x 104 /μL ALT 46 U/L Serological tests LDH 201 U/L CRP <0.10 mg/dL ALP 292 U/L HBsAg (-) γ-GTP 77 U/L anti-HBs (-) Coagulation BUN 13 mg/dL anti-HBc (+) PT 126.1 % Cr 0.63 mg/dL HBeAg (-) APTT 27.5 sec HbA1c 6.2 % anti-HBe (+) Cortisol 7.46 μg/dL anti-HCV (+) ACTH <1.5 pg/mL FBS 82 mg/dL Genetic tests Na 138 mmol/L HBV DNA Undetectable Cl 105 mmol/L HCV RNA 4.1 LogIU/Ml K 3.6 mmol/L HCV genotype 2 Ca 9.0 mg/dL Abbreviations: Hematology: WBC, white blood cells; RBC, red blood cells; Hb, hemoglobin; Ht, hematocrit; PLT, platelets. Coagulation: PT, prothrombin time; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time. Chemistry: TP, total protein; Alb, albumin; T-Bil, total bilirubin; AST, aspartate transaminase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; γGTP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; HbA1c, Hemoglobin A1c; FBS, fasting blood sugar; Na, sodium; Cl, chlorine; K, potassium; Ca, calcium; DHEA-S, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; PRA, plasma renin activity; ALD, aldosterone. Serological tests: CRP, C-reactive protein; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; anti-HBs, hepatitis B surface antibody; anti-HBc, hepatitis B core antibody; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen; anti-HBe, hepatitis B e antibody; anti-HCV, hepatitis C virus antibody. Genetic tests: HBV DNA, hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid; HCV RNA, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. FIGURE 1 Open in figure viewerPowerPoint Contrast-enhanced CT examination. Contrast-enhanced CT examination revealed a tumor (arrow) with a major axis of about 30 mm in the left adrenal gland FIGURE 2 Open in figure viewerPowerPoint MRI image of the adrenal lesion. MRI showed mild hyperintensity in the "in phase" (A) and decreased signal in the "out of phase" (B), suggesting adrenocortical adenoma (arrow) FIGURE 3 Open in figure viewerPowerPoint Changes in serum transaminase and HCV RNA levels. All showed rapid improvement by administration of direct acting antivirals. ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate transaminase, HCV RNA: hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid FIGURE 4 Open in figure viewerPowerPoint Pathological findings of tissues obtained by percutaneous liver biopsy. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which was mostly composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells and a small number of neutrophils, was observed mainly in the portal vein area. This was accompanied by fibrous enlargement and interface hepatitis. Although the arrangement of hepatocytes was maintained in the hepatic lobule, spotty necrosis was observed in some parts. No clear fat deposits were found in the hepatocytes, and NASH or NAFLD was a negative finding. According to the New Inuyama classification, hepatitis equivalent to A2-3/F1-2 was considered (a; ×100, b; ×200, scale bar = 500 µm) 3 DISCUSSION Reactivation of HBV can cause serious liver damage. Therefore, it is recommended to check the HBV infection status before starting anticancer chemotherapy or immunotherapy and to continue monitoring for the presence or absence of reactivation thereafter.1, 2 On the other hand, there are fewer reports of the reactivation of HCV, and many aspects of the pathophysiology of HCV reactivation remain unclear. In this case, it is possible that chronic hepatitis C was acutely exacerbated due to endogenous cortisol secretion in Cushing's syndrome. Although the definition of HCV reactivation has not been defined, several studies3-5 have defined an increase of HCVRNA of 1.0 log IU/ml or more as HCV reactivation. In addition, the definition of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C is that ALT increases to more than three times the upper limit of the reference range.3, 4, 6 Mahale et al. reported a retrospective study in which acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C due to cancer medication was seen in 11% of 308 patients.3 Torres et al. also reported that, in a prospective study of 100 patients with cancer medication, HCV reactivation was found in 23%.4 Given these reports, HCV reactivation potentially could occur quite frequently. However, Torres et al. reported that only 10% of all patients had acute exacerbations, none of which led to liver failure.4 Such data suggest that HCV reactivation may often be overlooked in actual cases without aggravation. Thus, the frequency of aggravation due to hepatitis virus reactivation is thought to be lower for HCV than for HBV. However, there are some reports of deaths from acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C.7-10 In addition, if severe hepatitis develops following viral reactivation, mortality rates have been reported to be similar for HBV and HCV.8, 11 Thus, reactivation of HCV is considered to be a pathological condition that requires caution, similar to HBV. Torres et al. reported that administration of rituximab or corticosteroids is a significant independent risk factor.4 In addition, there are reports of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C due to corticosteroids administered as antiemetics and as immunosuppressive therapy.12-14 Therefore, excess cortisol can reactivate not only HBV but also HCV. The mechanism by which HCV is reactivated with cortisol is assumed to be decreased cell-mediated immunity due to rapid apoptosis of circulating T cells caused by glucocorticoids,4 enhancement of HCV infectivity by upregulation of viral receptor expression on the hepatocyte surface,15 and enhanced viral replication.16 In addition, there is a report that genotype 2 is more common in cases with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C,4, 13 which is consistent with this case. Regarding HBV reactivation due to Cushing's syndrome, three cases of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B have been reported.17-19 It is believed that Cushing's syndrome caused a decrease in cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity due to an endogenous excess of cortisol, resulting in an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.13 As described above, because an excess of cortisol can cause reactivation of HCV, it is considered that a decrease in immunocompetence due to Cushing's syndrome, which is an excess of endogenous cortisol, can also cause reactivation of HCV and acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis. However, as far as we can determine, no cases of Cushing's syndrome causing HCV reactivation or acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C have been reported and similar cases may be latent. Among the reports of acute exacerbation of hepatitis B due to adrenal Cushing's syndrome, there is a case in which the liver damage and viral load were improved only by adrenalectomy.17 Therefore, it is also possible that hepatitis C was improved by adrenal resection in this case. However, general anesthesia associated with adrenalectomy and the use of various drugs used for postoperative physical management should be avoided, if possible, in situations where some severe liver damage is present. In addition, reactivation of immunity due to rapid depletion of glucocorticoid, following resection of an adrenal tumor, may lead to exacerbation of liver damage. In this case, the amount of HCV and hepatic transaminase levels were improved rapidly by glecaprevir/pibrentasvir treatment, and the operation could be performed safely. If Cushing's syndrome is complicated by an acute exacerbation of hepatitis C, clinicians should consider including treatment strategies such as in this case. Summarizing the above, when liver damage appears in HCV-infected patients with Cushing's syndrome, it will be necessary to distinguish the acute exacerbation and reactivation of chronic hepatitis C. Treatment with DAAs may then be considered to be effective for reactivation of HCV and acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis. 4 CONCLUSION We report a case of chronic hepatitis C with acute exacerbation during the course of Cushing's syndrome. At the time of cancer drug therapy and in the state of endogenous and extrinsic corticosteroid excess, it is necessary to pay attention not only to acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B but also to hepatitis C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All authors would like to thank the patient and his family for allowing this case study. CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors have no conflict of interests. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO and KM were collected and analyzed the data and wrote and edited the manuscript. KH, ST, HO, KT, KM, and JK were involved in the patient's care and provided advice on the preparation of this case report. ETHICAL APPROVAL This study complied with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and the current ethical guidelines. CONSENT Written informed consent was obtained from the patient to publish this report in accordance with the journal's patient consent policy. From https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ccr3.5337
  3. Extracted and adapted from this series: Post 1) I was officially diagnosed with Cushing's yesterday. I have a CT scan to check on my adrenal tumor and a meeting with my surgeon tomorrow. Hopefully they will schedule surgery for Monday or Tuesday. I have suffered over a year with this, been in congestive heart failure, and believe this cortisol caused my son to be stillborn in March. It's been the year from hell. Please pray that all goes well tomorrow and that I will be cured of this once and for all!! Post 2) Surgery set for the 23rd!!!!! He is planning a right adrenaltectomy. I am so darn excited... Post 3) I'm almost two weeks out of adrenal surgery. He removed the tumor & my gland. This has been the hardest and most painful two weeks of my life. I am already noticing little changes in my body. My skin is getting texture, my hair is not as brittle, my swelling goes down each day, and my nails are white instead of yellow and are stronger. I am getting hair back on my arms, legs, & feet too. I can't wait to continue to get well. I am ready to be able to get out and about. I am pretty much housebound now because of the pain of the withdrawal from the cortisol. I stay on my painkillers and rest in my recliner. Hubby bought it for me because I can't sleep in the bed comfortably. He's the best. He's been sleeping on our air mattress in the living room with me for almost 2 weeks now. He is always there to help me get out of the recliner when I need to. He is amazing. Just wanted to update you all. Getting better everyday. Post 4) I am on 40mg Hydrocortisone daily right now. I will have my first wean close to Christmas. I have an appt. on the 21st with my endo. She is fantastic and saved my life from this stuff. I am so blessed. Today is a rough day. I did have 2 good days in a row which was a huge blessing. Thanks for thinking of me! Post 5) Well, I just survived month 1 of recovery. It was HORRIBLE. I have never had so much pain in my life. I am still on 40 mg and my endo. wants me to wean 10 mg starting on the 27th. We'll see how it goes. I have so much pain, shaking, chills, no sleep NOW. I can't imagine how its going to be on a lower dose. My cortisol level was SO HIGH (2107) before surgery. I knew this withdrawal was going to be terrible. SHe had never seen a level as high as mine before. The lab actually tested my urine twice because they didn't believe it the first time. I am doing a lot of resting right now. I am very nervous about my mother leaving on New Year's Day. I don't know how I am going to handle my 3 year old on my own. I hurt so badly and my vision isn't the greatest yet. Thanks for thinking of me and writing me back. Post 6) We have another call into my endo about my suffering. I have done nothing but shake uncontrollably all day so far. I hurt so badly. I am up every hour at night writhing in pain. I refuse to suffer like this anymore. I want some relief. Thank you so much for all of the advice. It means the world to me. Great news is that I am off my BP meds as of today!! Cardiologist's office said I could quit them. I am thrilled. Now to get this pain under control. Post 7) Endo said we can do whatever I can tolerate. I am now doing 20/20/10 instead of 20/10/10. I am still in pain, but it's a little more tolerable. She said if I am just miserable and can't take the pain, then I can do a bedtime dose. I am going to try melatonin to help me sleep per her suggestion. She wants to see how I do on this new dose and start a slow wean in a few weeks. Post 8) Things have been getting better by the week. New years day was my best physical and mental day so far. I can actually feel my old self returning! !! Today I have lots of bone/muscle pain. Its better than a few weeks ago by far. Yesterday I was able to enjoy my son and play with him for the first time in a long time. I could even dance a little with him. He was so happy. I am down to 20/17.5/10& am handling it well. The pain is tolerable. My hump is almost gone, my stomach is mushy and shrinking, skin is peeling and improving, hair is growing in normally. I will be six weeks out this Wed.
  4. Dr. Friedman will host Tobias Carling, MD, PhD, FACS Surgeon-in-Chief & Founder Carling Adrenal Center Hospital for Endocrine Surgery www.adrenal.com Who will talk on: The 20-minute Mini Back Scope Adrenalectomy (MBSA) The Carling Adrenal Center is the world's busiest adrenal surgery center, operating on patients from all 50 states and all over the world. Dr. Carling is the most experienced adrenal surgeon in the United States, and by far the world's most knowledgeable surgeon-scientist when it comes to adrenal gland function and disease, adrenal tumors and cancer, and all forms of adrenal gland surgery. Dr. Carling has more experience with advanced minimally invasive adrenal and endocrine operations than any surgeon in the United States. A fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Dr. Carling is a significant member of both the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) and the International Association of Endocrine Surgeons (IAES). Dr. Carling spent 17.5 years at Yale University and the Yale University School of Medicine where he served as the Chief of Endocrine Surgery, Associate Professor of Surgery, Program Director of the Yale Endocrine Surgery Fellowship and the Founder & Director of the Yale Endocrine Neoplasia Laboratory, a supreme scientific program focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tumors arising in the adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Dr. Carling moved his world-renowned adrenal surgery program to Tampa, Florida in early 2020 to start the Carling Adrenal Center. Here, patients needing adrenal surgery have access to the best practices and best techniques the world has to offer. Dr. Carling works closely with Dr. Friedman and will be able to perform a Mini Back Scope Adrenalectomy with a referral from Dr. Friedman. Sunday • November 7• 6 PM PST Via Zoom Click here to join the meeting or https://us02web.zoom.us/j/4209687343?pwd=amw4UzJLRDhBRXk1cS9ITU02V1pEQT09 OR +16699006833,,4209687343#,,,,*111116# Slides will be available before the webinar and recording after the meeting at slides Your phone/computer will be muted on entry. There will be plenty of time for questions using the chat button. For more information, email us at mail@goodhormonehealth.com
  5. Dr. Friedman will host Tobias Carling, MD, PhD, FACS Surgeon-in-Chief & Founder Carling Adrenal Center Hospital for Endocrine Surgery www.adrenal.com Who will talk on: The 20-minute Mini Back Scope Adrenalectomy (MBSA) The Carling Adrenal Center is the world's busiest adrenal surgery center, operating on patients from all 50 states and all over the world. Dr. Carling is the most experienced adrenal surgeon in the United States, and by far the world's most knowledgeable surgeon-scientist when it comes to adrenal gland function and disease, adrenal tumors and cancer, and all forms of adrenal gland surgery. Dr. Carling has more experience with advanced minimally invasive adrenal and endocrine operations than any surgeon in the United States. A fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Dr. Carling is a significant member of both the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) and the International Association of Endocrine Surgeons (IAES). Dr. Carling spent 17.5 years at Yale University and the Yale University School of Medicine where he served as the Chief of Endocrine Surgery, Associate Professor of Surgery, Program Director of the Yale Endocrine Surgery Fellowship and the Founder & Director of the Yale Endocrine Neoplasia Laboratory, a supreme scientific program focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tumors arising in the adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Dr. Carling moved his world-renowned adrenal surgery program to Tampa, Florida in early 2020 to start the Carling Adrenal Center. Here, patients needing adrenal surgery have access to the best practices and best techniques the world has to offer. Dr. Carling works closely with Dr. Friedman and will be able to perform a Mini Back Scope Adrenalectomy with a referral from Dr. Friedman. Sunday • November 7• 6 PM PST Via Zoom Click here to join the meeting or https://us02web.zoom.us/j/4209687343?pwd=amw4UzJLRDhBRXk1cS9ITU02V1pEQT09 OR +16699006833,,4209687343#,,,,*111116# Slides will be available before the webinar and recording after the meeting at slides Your phone/computer will be muted on entry. There will be plenty of time for questions using the chat button. For more information, email us at mail@goodhormonehealth.com
  6. Ieva Lase, Malin Grönberg, Olov Norlén, Peter Stålberg, Staffan Welin, Eva Tiensuu Janson First published: 13 August 2021 https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.13030 Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) causing ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) are rare and challenging to treat. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate different approaches for bilateral adrenalectomy (BA) as a treatment option in ECS. Fifty-three patients with ECS caused by a NEN (35 females/18 men; mean ± SD age: 53 ± 15 years) were identified from medical records. Epidemiological and clinical parameters, survival, indications for surgery and timing, as well as duration of surgery, complications and surgical techniques, were collected and further analysed. The primary tumour location was thorax (n = 30), pancreas (n = 14) or unknown (n = 9). BA was performed in 37 patients. Median time from diagnosis of ECS to BA was 2 months (range 1–10 months). Thirty-two patients received different steroidogenesis inhibitors before BA to control hypercortisolaemia. ECS resolved completely after surgery in 33 patients and severe peri- or postoperative complications were detected in 12 patients. There were fewer severe complications in the endoscopic group compared to open surgery (p = .030). Posterior retroperitoneoscopic BA performed simultaneously by a two surgeon approach had the shortest operating time (p = .001). Despite the frequent use of adrenolytic treatment, BA was necessary in a majority of patients to gain control over ECS. Complication rate was high, probably as a result of the combination of metastatic disease and metabolic disorders caused by high cortisol levels. The two surgeon approach BA may be considered as the method of choice in ECS compared to other BA approaches as a result of fewer complications and a shorter operating time. 1 INTRODUCTION Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) has an estimated incidence of 0.2–5.0 per million people per year.1 In 5–10% of these, it is caused by ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or, in extremely rare cases, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, from a non-pituitary tumour.1, 2 The treatment of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) with ectopic secretion of ACTH is challenging. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of this condition, there is no established evidence-based recommendation.3 Most patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) have severe hypercortisolaemia leading to disrupted electrolyte and glucose levels, metabolic alkalosis, thrombosis and life-threatening infections, amongst many other manifestations. Initiation of oncological treatment is often delayed as a result of the consequences of high cortisol levels. A reduction of the cortisol level is crucial for survival and hypercortisolaemia and hypokalaemia are negative prognostic factors.4, 5 If radical surgery of the tumour is not possible because of metastatic disease, normo-cortisolaemia can be achieved either by medical treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors (SI) or bilateral adrenalectomy (BA),6 and BA has also been considered a treatment option for patients with occult or cyclic ECS. In patients with metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas, platinum-based chemotherapy may be applied as first-line action, combined by SI and/or followed by BA. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous adrenal ablation has been reported in several case reports as a possible therapeutic alternative for patients in whom medical treatment has failed and BA is not feasible,7-10 althhough more data is needed to recommend this method in daily practice. In the 1930s, transabdominal open access BA was introduced as a treatment option for uncontrolled cortisol secretion.11 Sixty years later, in the 1990s, laparoscopic methods were established12, 13 and are now considered as the gold standard for BA (except for adrenal carcinomas) because they result in less postoperative pain, a shorter hospitalisation time and faster recovery.14 Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTA) is the most frequently applied surgical method. However, posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA), introduced in 1995 by Walz et al,15 is gaining popularity.16 Using PRA compared to LTA offers a more direct approach to the adrenal glands, a shorter operating time (no need for reposition of the patient), less blood loss and faster recovery, and it aso has advantages for patients with obesity or a history of previous abdominal surgery.16 There are centres where PRA is performed by a two surgeon approach; thus, a simultaneous bilateral approach offers the possibility of decreasing the surgical time by up to 50% and reducing operative stress.17-19 The present study aimed to evaluate BA as a treatment option for ECS, as well as the effects of different approaches on morbidity and mortality. We hypothesised that endoscopic surgery methods could be superior regarding complication rate, operating and hospitalisation time compared to open access surgery and also influence overall survival. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Patients and data A cohort of 59 patients with ECS was identified retrospectively from medical records of 894 patients with NENs, referred to the Department of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital between 1984 and 2019. None of the patients had a small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) because these tumours are not treated at our centre and possibly have a different mechanism behind ACTH production compared to that of NENs. Furthermore, SCLCs have a much more severe course of disease compared to well differentiated NENs and including them in the present study could mask any results important for NEN clinical management. Six patients were from outside Sweden and were excluded from further analysis because of a lack of follow-up data; thus, in total, 53 patients were available for analysis. Diagnosis of ECS was confirmed by histopathological examination of tumour specimen (n = 48) together with the clinical and biochemical picture of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (elevated serum and urinary cortisol, high ACTH and pathological functional tests). In five patients where neither primary tumor, nor metastatic disease was found despite several PET examinations, including 68 Ga- DOTATOC-PET, 11C-5HTP-PET and 18FDG-PET in four of the five patients, ECS was confirmed on the basis of the clinical/biochemical picture and exclusion of pituitary origin by magnetic resonance imaging, as well as inferior sinus petrosus sampling. Epidemiological data, data on clinical parameters, survival, indication and duration of surgery, complications and surgical technique were extracted and further analysed. 2.2 Surgery BA was performed either by an open access approach, LTA or PRA. PRA was performed either by one surgeon (PRA-1S) or by two surgeons operating on both sides simultaneously (PRA-2S). Some patients were operated twice (one adrenal at the time) and, for those patients, operating time was pooled from both surgeries, if both sessions were performed within 1 week. Cases where conversion from an endoscopic to an open access approach was made peroperatively were grouped as open access surgery in further analysis. Patients who died during the postoperative stage (within 30 days) were excluded from calculation of hospitalisation time. Postoperative complications were graded using the Clavien–Dindo classification where complications of Grade 1 are defined as “any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiological interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimens are drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics and electrolytes and physiotherapy”.20 Because almost all patients had mild, Grade 1 postoperative complications (metabolic disturbances caused by hypercortisolaemia), this variable is not described. We defined complications up to Grade 2 as mild and Grade 3–5 as severe. 2.3 Statistical analysis All parameters were analysed by descriptive statistics: normally distributed data as the mean ± SD, and data with skewed distribution and/or outliers were described as medians, accompanied by the 25th to 75th percentile ranges (Q1-Q3) or minimum-maximum (min-max). The defined event was death from any cause. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time from diagnosis of ECS or time of BA until date of death or, if the event was not found, censored at date of last observation, 31 December 2019. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for survival analysis and the log-rank test was used for comparison. Chi-squared was used for testing relationships between categorical variables. p < .05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using IBM, version 27 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA). 3 RESULTS 3.1 Studied patients ECS represented six% (n = 59) of NENs in our cohort. Six patients were excluded from further analysis, resulting in 53 ECS patients who were analysed; there were 35 females and 18 males with a mean ± SD age of 53 ± 15 years. The localisation of the primary NEN was thorax (n = 30), pancreas (n = 14) or unknown (n = 9). Histopathological staining for Ki-67 was available in 38 patients and Ki-67 was < 2% in five patients, 3–20% in 22 patients and > 20% in 11 patients. Patient characteristics are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Twenty-two patients (41.5%) in this cohort had concomitant hypersecretion of hormones other than ACTH from their tumour (5-HIAA, n = 10; calcitonin, n = 3; 5-HIAA + calcitonin, n = 2; glucagon, n = 3, gastrin, n = 2; growth hormone, n = 1; insulin + gastrin + vasointestinal peptide, n = 1). 3.2 Surgery Adrenalectomy was performed in 37 patients (70%); 24 patients were operated at Uppsala University Hospital, nine at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm and four at Umeå University Hospital. Median time from diagnosis of ECS to BA was 2 months (range 1–10 months). Median Ki-67 in patients who were operated within 2 months after ECS diagnosis was higher (Ki-67 18.5%) compared to those with BA performed later in the course of disease (Ki-67 9.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = .085). Thirty-two (86%) patients received different SI prior to BA to control hypercortisolaemia. Eight of those were treated with chemotherapy as well in an attempt to reduce cortisol levels. The majority of patients was treated with ketoconazole, often in combination with other drugs (Table 3). Indications for BA in our cohort included (1) persistent hypercortisolaemia despite use of SI (n = 30); (2) BA as first choice of treatment to reduce cortisol levels (n = 5); and (3) no effect combined with severe side effects from SI including liver toxicity and severe leukopenia (n = 2). In 16 patients, BA was not performed as a result of (1) good control of ECS with SI (n = 4); (2) radical surgery of the primary tumour (n = 3); (3) good control of ECS with SI followed by radical surgery of the primary tumour (n = 5) and (4) the bad condition of the patient (n = 4). 3.3 Survival analysis There was no operative mortality in this cohort. Four patients died within 1 month after adrenalectomy (on day 5, 16, 22 and 30, respectively) as a result of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and progression of NEN. At the end of the follow-up period, 14 patients were still alive and 39 had died. Median survival after BA was 24 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7–41, min-max: 0–428) with a 5-year survival of 22%. Median follow-up time for all patients from time of ECS diagnosis was 26 (range 6–62) months and after BA was 19 (range 3–50) months. OS was longer in patients where ECS was treated by radical surgery of the primary tumour or where good biochemical control was achieved by SI compared to patients who underwent BA, 96 months (95% CI 0–206) vs 29 months (95% CI 7–51), respectively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = .086), most likely as a result of the small sample size. Multiple hormone secretion correlated with shorter OS after BA (p = .009; hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% CI= 1.3–6.7). There was no significant difference in OS after BA depending on localisation of primary tumour (thoracic NENs 24 months [95% CI = 8–40, min-max: 0–428], pancreatic NENs 19 months [95% CI = 0–43, min-max: 0–60], p = .319) or surgical approach (open access approach 24 months [95% CI = 1–47], endoscopic approach 19 months [95% CI = 1–37], p = .720). Median time from ECS diagnosis to BA was 2 months (range 1–10). Patients who underwent BA within 2 months after ECS diagnosis had shorter OS compared to those who were operated at a later stage: 6 months (95% CI = 0–18) and 45 months (95% CI = 3–86) respectively (p = .007). The former group had a slightly higher median Ki-67 level (18% vs 9%), lower potassium (2.7 mmol L-1 vs 3.0 mmol L-1) and higher hormone levels (ACTH 217 vs 120 ng mL-1, morning cortisol 1448 vs 1181 nmol L-1 and UFC 5716 vs 4234 nmol per 24 h) at diagnosis compared to those who were operated later in the course of disease. 4 DISCUSSION The present study highlights new aspects of the advantages of an endoscopic approach of BA compared to open access surgery, regarding the incidence of severe complications graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification, as well as operation- and hospitalisation time. Our results indicate that PRA performed by two surgeons simultaneously is the method of choice for patients with ECS. However, despite these advantages, the endoscopic approach did not appear to improve overall survival. Recent Endocrine Society guidelines recommend SI as primary treatment for ECS in patients with occult or metastatic ECS followed by BA.6 Although the toxicity of SI in our cohort was low (n = 2; 6%), 32 patients (73%) had persistent hypercortisolaemia despite medical treatment and proceeded to BA. BA, especially with an endoscopic approach, with a short operating time and low complication risk, appears to play a major role in the appropriate management of hypercortisolaemia in ECS, where rapid reduction of cortisol levels is very important. Prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels, in combination with high risk for hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic SI side effects, increases morbidity and risk for severe complications, and often delays the start of oncological treatment. However, the trauma caused by surgery can also postpone initiation of chemotherapy.21 Therefore, a fast and minimally invasive surgical procedure appears to be a crucial factor for the better survival in ECS. The endoscopic approach is now considered as the gold standard for BA. Our study presents fewer severe complications, as well as shorter operating and hospitalisation times, when the endoscopic approach is compared with open surgery. In line with previous studies,19, 22 we observed a significantly shorter operating time when applying PRA compared to LTA because there is no need for repositioning of the patient during PRA. PRA-2S had the shortest operating time and should be considered as the best choice of surgical approach in ECS. This result ties well with previous studies reporting the median operating time to be between 43 and 157 min in PRA-2S, which is significantly shorter compared to LTA and PRA-1S.17-19 The median time from diagnosis to BA was 2 months, which is consistent with a previous study.23 However, OS was significantly shorter in patients who were operated within 2 months after diagnosis of ECS in our cohort compared to those operated at a later stage. These early operated patients probably had a more aggressive clinical course of disease, as indicated by slightly higher median Ki-67, lower potassium and higher hormone levels at diagnosis, and they were operated as a result of more acute indications (without time to proper pre-treatment with SI) than the other group. In our previous report on patients with ACTH-producing NENs, multiple hormone secretion was identified as the strongest indicator of a worse prognosis.4 A similar pattern of results was observed in this cohort, showing that patients with NENs, with concomitant hypersecretion of other hormones than ACTH from their tumour, had a shorter OS after BA compared to those with ACTH hypersecretion only. As a result of the extremely high preoperative cortisol levels in ECS, the substitution therapy needed after successful BA may be challenging.21 Over-replacement of glucocorticoids may lead to higher morbidity24 and mortality, especially in patients with metastatic NENs, who often have impaired immune function because of oncological treatment. Many patients suffer from glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome, despite adequate replacement therapy, and it can take ≥ 1 year to gain control over these symptoms.6 This frequently leads to high dosage of glucocorticoids. The Endocrine Society guidelines recommend glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone, 10–12 mg m-2 day-1 in divided doses.6 If we assume that most of our patients have body surface area around 2 m2 or less, the daily hydrocortisone dose should not exceed 25 mg. However, 1 year after BA, only one patient received 25 mg of hydrocortisone daily, with the majority receiving 30 mg or more. One-third of the patients had residual arterial hypertension and diabetes 3 months after BA, probably partially depending on too high a dose of glucocorticoids. There was a higher complication rate in our cohort compared to other studies19, 25, 26 and five patients needed conversion from an endoscopic approach to open surgery. In particular, the outcome of BA in ECS has not previously been systematically evaluated27 because most of the reports include patients with various aetiologies of CS.19, 22, 23, 28, 29 In a systematic review of the literature published between 1980 and 2012 on BA in CS, Reincke et al23 identified 37 studies and ECS was present in 13% of the patients. There are only few papers focused on BA in ECS solely21, 25, 26, 30, 31 and only one has a cohort with > 50 patients (n = 54).26 Patients with ECS have almost always a more aggressive course and more severe metabolic disturbance than patients with other types of Cushing’s syndrome, which probably leads to higher risk for postoperative complications. Furthermore, multiple liver metastases, fibrotic processes in the abdomen as a result of previous surgery or large primary tumour in pancreas could be some of the factors influencing surgical outcome in ECS. The present study has several limitations. First, all data were collected retrospectively from patient records and not all the preferred parameters were available for all patients. Second, even if our cohort is one of the largest regarding studies on BA in ECS, the number of patients is too low for reliable statistical analysis. Finally, our study covered more than three decades, BAs were performed at different clinics and by different surgeons. Therefore, the data should be interpreted carefully. In conclusion, the present study is one of few reports focusing on BA in specifically NEN patients with ECS and includes one of the largest patient cohorts analysed in the field. PRA-2S can be considered as method of choice in ECS compared to other BA approaches. The aim is to avoid administrating too high a hydrocortisone replacement dosage postoperatively because this can worsen the metabolic disturbance. As a result of the rarity of the condition, multicentre studies are needed with large, prospective cohorts and standardised inclusion criteria, aiming to further improve our knowledge about the management of ECS. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was funded by the Swedish Cancer Society (grant number CAN 18 0576), the Lions Foundation for Cancer Research at Uppsala University Hospital, Selanders Foundation and Söderbergs foundation at Uppsala University. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Ieva Lase: Conceptualisation; Data curation; Formal analysis; Investigation; Methodology; Visualisation; Writing – original draft; Writing – review & editing. Malin Grönberg: Formal analysis; Supervision; Visualisation; Writing – review & editing. Olov Norlén: Conceptualisation; Writing – review & editing. Peter Stålberg: Conceptualisation; Writing – review & editing. Staffan Welin: Conceptualisation; Supervision; Writing – review & editing. Eva Tiensuu Janson: Conceptualisation; Funding acquisition; Methodology; Supervision; Writing – review & editing. ETHICAL APPROVAL The need for informed consent was waived by the local ethics committee. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, Regionala etikprövningsnämnden (EPN), in Uppsala, Sweden. PEER REVIEW The peer review history for this article is available at https://publons.com/publon/10.1111/jne.13030. The entire article, PDF, supporting tables and more can be found at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jne.13030
  7. Dr. Friedman will discuss topics including: Who should get an adrenalectomy? How do you optimally replace adrenal hormones? What laboratory tests are needed to monitor replacement? When and how do you stress dose? What about subcut cortisol versus cortisol pumps? Patient Melissa will lead a Q and A Sunday • May 17 • 6 PM PST Click here on start your meeting or https://axisconciergemeetings.webex.com/axisconciergemeetings/j.php?MTID=mb896b9ec88bc4e1163cf4194c55b248f OR Join by phone: (855) 797-9485 Meeting Number (Access Code): 802 841 537 Your phone/computer will be muted on entry. Slides will be available on the day of the talk here There will be plenty of time for questions using the chat button. Meeting Password: addison
  8. Dr. Friedman will discuss topics including: Who should get an adrenalectomy? How do you optimally replace adrenal hormones? What laboratory tests are needed to monitor replacement? When and how do you stress dose? What about subcut cortisol versus cortisol pumps? Patient Melissa will lead a Q and A Sunday • May 17 • 6 PM PST Click here on start your meeting or https://axisconciergemeetings.webex.com/axisconciergemeetings/j.php?MTID=mb896b9ec88bc4e1163cf4194c55b248f OR Join by phone: (855) 797-9485 Meeting Number (Access Code): 802 841 537 Your phone/computer will be muted on entry. Slides will be available on the day of the talk here There will be plenty of time for questions using the chat button. Meeting Password: addison For more information, email us at mail@goodhormonehealth.com
  9. Dr. Friedman will discuss topics including: Who should get an adrenalectomy? How do you optimally replace adrenal hormones? What laboratory tests are needed to monitor replacement? When and how do you stress dose? What about subcut cortisol versus cortisol pumps? Patient Melissa will lead a Q and A Sunday • May 17 • 6 PM PST Click here on start your meeting or https://axisconciergemeetings.webex.com/axisconciergemeetings/j.php?MTID=mb896b9ec88bc4e1163cf4194c55b248f OR Join by phone: (855) 797-9485 Meeting Number (Access Code): 802 841 537 Your phone/computer will be muted on entry. Slides will be available on the day of the talk here There will be plenty of time for questions using the chat button. Meeting Password: addison For more information, email us at mail@goodhormonehealth.com
  10. Cushing’s syndrome patients who undergo adrenal surgery are more likely to have venous thromboembolism — blood clots that originate in the veins — than patients who have the same procedure for other conditions, a study suggests. Physicians should consider preventive treatment for this complication in Cushing’s syndrome patients who are having adrenal surgery and maintain it for four weeks after surgery due to late VTE onset. The study, “Is VTE Prophylaxis Necessary on Discharge for Patients Undergoing Adrenalectomy for Cushing Syndrome?” was published in the Journal of Endocrine Society. Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by too much cortisol in circulation. In many cases, it is caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, which produces greater amounts of the cortisol-controlling adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In other cases, patients have tumors in the adrenal glands that directly increase cortisol production. When the source of the problem is the pituitary gland, the condition is known as Cushing’s disease. The imbalance in cortisol levels generates metabolic complications that include obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. Among the latter, the formation of blood clots in the deep veins of the leg, groin or arm — a condition called venous thromboembolism (VTE) — is higher in both Cushing’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome patients. VTE is believed to be a result of excess coagulation factors that promote blood clot formation, and is thought to particularly affect Cushing’s disease patients who have pituitary gland surgery. Whether Cushing’s syndrome patients who have an adrenalectomy — surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands — are at a higher risk for VTE is largely unknown. This is important for post-operative management, to decide whether they should have preventive treatment for blood clot formation. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute in Maryland did a retrospective analysis of a large group of patients in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program database. A total of 8,082 patients underwent adrenal gland surgery between 2005 and 2016. Data on these patients included preoperative risk factors, as well as 30-day post-surgery mortality and morbidity outcomes. Patients with malignant disease and without specified adrenal pathology were excluded from the study. The final analysis included 4,217 patients, 61.8% of whom were females. In total, 310 patients had Cushing’s syndrome or Cushing’s disease that required an adrenalectomy. The remaining 3,907 had an adrenal disease other than Cushing’s and were used as controls. The incidence of VTE after surgery — defined as pulmonary embolism (a blockage of an artery in the lungs) or deep-vein thrombosis — was 1% in the overall population. However, more Cushing’s patients experienced this complication (2.6%) than controls (0.9%). Those diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome were generally younger, had a higher body mass index, and were more likely to have diabetes than controls. Their surgery also lasted longer — 191.2 minutes versus 142 minutes — as did their hospital stay – 2.4 versus two days. Although without statistical significance, the researchers observed a tendency for longer surgery time for patients with Cushing’s syndrome than controls with VTE. They saw no difference in the time for blood coagulation between Cushing’s and non-Cushing’s patients, or postoperative events other than pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis. In addition, no differences were detected for VTE incidence between Cushing’s and non-Cushing’s patients according to the type of surgical approach — laparoscopic versus open surgery. These results suggest that individuals with Cushing syndrome are at a higher risk for developing VTE. “Because the incidence of VTE events in the CS group was almost threefold higher than that in the non-CS group and VTE events occurred up to 23 days after surgery in patients with CS undergoing adrenalectomy, our data support postdischarge thromboprophylaxis for 28 days in these patients,” the researchers concluded. From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2019/02/14/cushings-syndrome-patients-blood-clots-adrenal-surgery/
  11. Patients with subclinical hypercortisolism, i.e., without symptoms of cortisol overproduction, and adrenal incidentalomas recover their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function after surgery faster than those with Cushing’s syndrome (CS), according to a study. Moreover, the researchers found that an HPA function analysis conducted immediately after the surgical removal of adrenal incidentalomas — adrenal tumors discovered by chance in imaging tests — could identify patients in need of glucocorticoid replacement before discharge. Using this approach, they found that most subclinical patients did not require treatment with hydrocortisone, a glucocorticoid taken to compensate for low levels of cortisol in the body, after surgery. The study, “Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function immediately after resection of adrenal adenomas in patients with Cushing’s syndrome and others with incidentalomas and subclinical hypercortisolism,” was published in Endocrine. The HPA axis is the body’s central stress response system. The hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) that acts on the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), leading the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. As the body’s defense mechanism to avoid excessive cortisol secretion, high cortisol levels alert the hypothalamus to stop producing CRH and the pituitary gland to stop making ACTH. Therefore, in diseases associated with chronically elevated cortisol levels, such as Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal incidentalomas, there’s suppression of the HPA axis. After an adrenalectomy, which is the surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands, patients often have low cortisol levels (hypocortisolism) and require glucocorticoid replacement therapy. “Most studies addressing the peri-operative management of patients with adrenal hypercortisolism have reported that irrespective of how mild the hypercortisolism was, such patients were given glucocorticoids before, during and after adrenalectomy,” the researchers wrote. Evidence also shows that, after surgery, glucocorticoid therapy is administered for months before attempting to test for recovery of HPA function. For the past 30 years, researchers at the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center have withheld glucocorticoid therapy in the postoperative management of patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas until there’s proof of hypocortisolism. “The approach offered us the opportunity to examine peri-operative hormonal alterations and demonstrate their importance in predicting need for replacement therapy, as well as future recurrences,” they said. In this prospective observational study, the investigators extended their approach to patients with subclinical hypercortisolism. “The primary goal of the study was to examine rapid alteration in HPA function in patients with presumably suppressed axis and appreciate the modulating impact of surgical stress in that setting,” they wrote. Collected data was used to decide whether to start glucocorticoid therapy. The analysis included 14 patients with Cushing’s syndrome and 19 individuals with subclinical hypercortisolism and an adrenal incidentaloma. All participants had undergone surgical removal of a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumor. “None of the patients received exogenous glucocorticoids during the year preceding their evaluation nor were they taking medications or had other illnesses that could influence HPA function or serum cortisol measurements,” the researchers noted. Glucocorticoid therapy was not administered before or during surgery. To evaluate HPA function, the clinical team took blood samples before and at one, two, four, six, and eight hours after the adrenalectomy to determine levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) — a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Pre-surgery assessment of both groups showed that patients with an incidentaloma plus subclinical hypercortisolism had larger adrenal masses, higher ACTH, and DHEA-S levels, but less serum cortisol after adrenal function suppression testing with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone is a man-made version of cortisol that, in a normal setting, makes the body produce less cortisol. But in patients with a suppressed HPA axis, cortisol levels remain high. After the adrenalectomy, the ACTH concentrations in both groups of patients increased. This was found to be negatively correlated with pre-operative dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol levels. Investigators reported that “serum DHEA-S levels in patients with Cushing’s syndrome declined further after adrenalectomy and were undetectable by the 8th postoperative hour,” while incidentaloma patients’ DHEA-S concentrations remained unchanged for the eight-hour postoperative period. Eight hours after surgery, all Cushing’s syndrome patients had serum cortisol levels of less than 2 ug/dL, indicating suppressed HPA function. As a result, all of these patients required glucocorticoid therapy for several months to make up for HPA axis suppression. “The decline in serum cortisol levels was slower and less steep [in the incidentaloma group] when compared to that observed in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. At the 6th–8th postoperative hours only 5/19 patients [26%] with subclinical hypercortisolism had serum cortisol levels at ≤3ug/dL and these 5 were started on hydrocortisone therapy,” the researchers wrote. Replacement therapy in the subclinical hypercortisolism group was continued for up to four weeks. Results suggest that patients with an incidentaloma plus subclinical hypercortisolism did not have an entirely suppressed HPA axis, as they were able to recover its function much faster than the CS group after surgical stress. From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/10/11/most-subclinical-cushings-patients-dont-need-glucocorticoids-post-surgery-study/?utm_source=Cushing%27s+Disease+News&utm_campaign=a881a1593b-RSS_WEEKLY_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_ad0d802c5b-a881a1593b-72451321
  12. All patients who undergo removal of one adrenal gland due to Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or adrenal incidentaloma (AI, adrenal tumors discovered incidentally) should receive a steroid substitutive therapy, a new study shows. The study, “Predictability of hypoadrenalism occurrence and duration after adrenalectomy for ACTH‐independent hypercortisolism,” was published in the Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. CS is a rare disease, but subclinical hypercortisolism, an asymptomatic condition characterized by mild cortisol excess, has a much higher prevalence. In fact, subclinical hypercortisolism, is present in up to 20 percent of patients with AI. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is composed of the hypothalamus, which releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) that acts on the pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), that in turn acts on the adrenal gland to release cortisol. To avoid excess cortisol production, high cortisol levels tell the hypothalamus and the pituitary to stop producing CRH and ACTH, respectively. Therefore, as CS and AI are characterized by high levels of cortisol, there is suppression of the HPA axis. As the adrenal gland is responsible for the production of cortisol, patients might need steroid substitutive therapy after surgical removal of AI. Indeed, because of HPA axis suppression, some patients have low cortisol levels after such surgeries – clinically known as post-surgical hypocortisolism (PSH), which can be damaging to the patient. While some researchers suggest that steroid replacement therapy should be given only to some patients, others recommend it should be given to all who undergo adrenalectomy (surgical removal of the adrenal gland). Some studies have shown that the severity of hypercortisolism, as well as the degree of HPA axis suppression and treatment with ketoconazole pre-surgery in CS patients, are associated with a longer duration of PSH. Until now, however, there have been only a few studies to guide in predicting the occurrence and duration of PSH. Therefore, researchers conducted a study to determine whether HPA axis activity, determined by levels of ACTH and cortisol, could predict the occurrence and duration of PSH in patients who undergo an adrenalectomy. Researchers studied 80 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for either CS or AI. Prior to the surgery, researchers measured levels of ACTH, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg-DST). After the surgery, all patients were placed on steroid replacement therapy and PSH was determined after two months. For those with PSH, levels of cortisol were determined every six months for at least four years. Results showed that PSH occurred in 82.4 percent of CS patients and 46 percent of AI patients. PSH lasted for longer than 18 months in 50 percent of CS and 30 percent of AI patients. Furthermore, it lasted longer than 36 months for 35.7 percent of CS patients. In all patients, PSH was predicted by pre-surgery cortisol levels after the 1 mg-DST, but with less than 70 percent accuracy. In AI patients, a shorter-than-12-month duration of PSH was not predicted by any HPA parameter, but was significantly predicted by an absence of pre-surgery diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism. So, this study did not find any parameters that could significantly predict with high sensitivity and specificity the development or duration of PSH in all patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Consequently, the authors concluded that “the PSH occurrence and its duration are hardly predictable before surgery. All patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy should receive a steroid substitutive therapy.” From https://cushieblog.com/2017/12/14/patients-undergoing-adrenalectomy-should-receive-steroid-substitutive-therapy/
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