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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report our management of bilateral adrenalectomy with autologous adrenal gland transplantation for persistent Cushing's disease, and to discuss the feasibility of autologous adrenal transplantation for the treatment of refractory Cushing's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 4 patients (3 females, aged 14-36 years) who underwent autologous adrenal transplantation for persistent Cushing's disease after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor. The procedure was performed by implanting a vascularized adrenal graft into the left iliac fossa with direct and indirect anastomoses. Postoperative follow-up was performed in 1, 1.5, 8, and 10 years, and an over 8-year long-term follow-up was reached in 2 out of the 4 cases. Hormone replacement dosage was guided by clinical symptoms and endocrine results including serum cortisol (F), 24 h urine-free cortisol, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels. RESULTS: All 4 patients with symptomatic Cushing's disease experienced resolution of symptoms after autotransplantation without Nelson Syndrome. Functional autografts were confirmed through clinical evaluation and endocrine results. One year after transplantation, adrenal function and hormone replacement dosage remained stable without adrenal hyperplasia. After long-term follow-up, dosages of hormone replacement were reduced in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of 4 patients, we demonstrate the long-term efficacy of bilateral adrenalectomy with autologous adrenal transplantation and propose this procedure as a viable treatment option for refractory Cushing's disease. © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel. KEYWORDS: Cortisol; Adrenalectomy; Autologous adrenal gland transplantation ; Cushing’s disease; Nelson syndrome PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31434089 TAGS: cortisol, adrenalectomy, Autologous adrenal gland transplantation , Cushing's disease, Nelson syndrome