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Found 5 results

  1. 6. Cushing syndrome This disorder occurs when your body makes too much of the hormone cortisol over a long period of time, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Although cortisol is notorious for driving up your stress, this hormone has other tasks on its docket, including regulating the way you metabolize food, the Mayo Clinic says. So, when you produce too much of it, it can interfere with your metabolism and cause you to gain weight, Peter LePort, M.D., a bariatric surgeon and medical director of MemorialCare Surgical Weight Loss Center at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, tells SELF. Beyond weight gain, symptoms of Cushing syndrome include deposits of fat-based tissue at the midsection, upper back, face, and between the shoulders, stretch marks due to rapid weight gain, thinning skin prone to bruising, increased body hair, irregular or missing periods, and more, according to the Mayo Clinic. Check out the other 12 at https://www.self.com/story/conditions-weight-gain-loss
  2. A retrospective analysis of data from more than 170 patients with Cushing syndrome and hyperglycemia provides insight into the effects of curative treatment on hyperglycemia among these patients. Irina Bancos, MD An analysis of retrospective data from a 20-year period details the impact of curative treatment on hyperglycemia among patients with Cushing syndrome. Led by a team of investigators from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, the study examined a cohort of 174 adult patients with Cushing Syndrome and determined 2-in-3 patients with hyperglycemia experienced resolution or improvement of hyperglycemia after a curative procedure. “This is the first study to analyze the quantitative changes based on the time from the curative surgery, to assess the changes in the intensity of hyperglycemia therapy and identify predictors for hyperglycemia improvement,” wrote investigators. A team led by Irina Bancos, MD, endocrinologist at the Mayo Clinic Rochester, designed the current study with an interest in examining the impact of curative procedures on hyperglycemia and its management in patients with Cushing syndrome from electronic medical record data of patients treated at a referral center from 2000-2019. The primary purpose of the study was to assess the impact of curative procedures on extent of hyperglycemia and the secondary aim was to investigators how baseline factors might influence improvement of hyperglycemia at follow-up. For inclusion in the analysis, patients needed to be at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with Cushing syndrome, and have hyperglycemia treated with a curative procedure from January 1, 2000-November 1, 2019. For the purpose of analysis, Cushing syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical evaluation by an endocrinologist and diagnosed according to the most recent guidelines. Hyperglycemia was defined according to American Diabetes Association guidelines. The primary outcome of interest for the study was the resolution of hyperglycemia following resolution of Cushing syndrome. For the purpose of analysis, resolution was defined as absence of hyperglycemia without the need for antihyperglycemic therapy. Secondary outcomes of interest included changes in HbA1c, and the intensity of hyperglycemia management. Overall, 174 patients were identified for inclusion in the study. This cohort had a median age of diagnosis of 51 (range, 16-82) years and 73% (n=127) were women. When assessing subtype of Cushing syndrome, the most common form was pituitary Cushing syndrome (60.9%), followed by ectopic (14.4%), and adrenal (24.7%). The median baseline HbA1c was 6.9% (range, 4.9-13.1), 24% of patients were not on any therapy for hyperglycemia, 52% were on oral medications, and 37% were on insulin (mean daily units, 58; range, 10-360). When assessing differences between subtypes, results indicated those with pituitary Cushing syndrome were younger at the time of surgery (P=.0009), and included more women (P=.0023), and reported a longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis. Investigators noted patients with pituitary Cushing syndrome also had the highest clinical severity score (P <.0001), but patients with ectopic Cushing syndrome had the highest biochemical severity score (P <.0001). Following Cushing syndrome remission and at the end of follow-up, which occurred at a median of 10.5 months, 21% of patients demonstrated resolution of hyperglycemia, 47% demonstrated improvement, and 32% had no change or worsening hyperglycemia. When assessing secondary end points, results indicate HbA1c decreased by 0.84% (P <.0001) and daily insulin dose decreased by a mean of 30 units (P <.0001). Further analysis indicated hypercortisolism severity score (severe vs moderate/mild: OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9) and Cushing syndrome subtype (nonadrenal vs adrenal: OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.4) were associated with hyperglycemia improvement, but not type of hyperglycemia (diabetes vs prediabetes: OR, 2,1; 95% CI, 0.9-4.9) at the end of follow-up. “We demonstrated that almost 70% of patients with CS demonstrate either resolution or improvement in hyperglycemia following CS remission. As a group, patients demonstrate a decrease in HbA1c, and can be treated with less insulin and fewer non-insulin agents. Patients with more severe hyperglycemia, ACTH-dependent CS, and more severe CS are more likely to improve after surgery,” added investigators. This study, “The impact of curative treatment on hyperglycemia in patients with Cushing syndrome,” was published in The Journal of the Endocrine Society. From https://www.endocrinologynetwork.com/view/obesity-overweight-responsible-for-1-in-5-future-thyroid-cancers-in-australia
  3. This article is based on reporting that features expert sources. Adrenal Fatigue: Is It Real? More You may have heard of so-called 'adrenal fatigue,' supposedly caused by ongoing emotional stress. Or you might have come across adrenal support supplements sold online to treat it. But if someone suggests you have the controversial, unproven condition, seek a second opinion, experts say. And if someone tries to sell you dietary supplements or other treatments for adrenal fatigue, be safe and save your money. (GETTY IMAGES) Physicians tend to talk about 'reaching' or 'making' a medical diagnosis. However, when it comes to adrenal fatigue, endocrinologists – doctors who specialize in diseases involving hormone-secreting glands like the adrenals – sometimes use language such as 'perpetrating a diagnosis,' 'misdiagnosis,' 'made-up diagnosis,' 'a fallacy' and 'nonsense.' About 20 years ago, the term "adrenal fatigue" was coined by Dr. James Wilson, a chiropractor. Since then, certain practitioners and marketers have promoted the notion that chronic stress somehow slows or shuts down the adrenal glands, causing excessive fatigue. "The phenomenon emerged from the world of integrative medicine and naturopathic medicine," says Dr. James Findling, a professor of medicine and director of the Community Endocrinology Center and Clinics at the Medical College of Wisconsin. "It has no scientific basis, and there's no merit to it as a clinical diagnosis." An online search of medical billing code sets in the latest version of the International Classification of Diseases, or the ICD-10, does not yield a diagnostic code for 'adrenal fatigue' among the 331 diagnoses related either to fatigue or adrenal conditions or procedures. In a March 2020 position statement, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology addressed the use of adrenal supplements "to treat common nonspecific symptoms due to 'adrenal fatigue,' an entity that has not been recognized as a legitimate diagnosis." The position statement warned of known and unknown health risks of off-label use and misuse of hormones and supplements in patients without an established endocrine diagnosis, as well as unnecessary costs to patients and the overall health care system. Study after study has refuted the legitimacy of adrenal fatigue as a medical diagnosis. An August 2016 systematic review combined and analyzed data from 58 studies on adrenal fatigue including more than 10,000 participants. The conclusion in a nutshell: "Adrenal fatigue does not exist," according to review authors in the journal BMC Endocrine Disorders. Adrenal Action You have two adrenal glands in your body. These small triangular glands, one on top of each kidney, produce essential hormones such as aldosterone, cortisol and male sex hormones such as DHEA and testosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism: How your body uses fat, protein and carbohydrates from food, and cortisol increases blood sugar as needed. It also plays a role in controlling blood pressure, preventing inflammation and regulating your sleep/wake cycle. As your body responds to stress, cortisol increases. This response starts with signals between two sections in the brain: The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which act together to release a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to make cortisol. This interactive unit is called the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. While some health conditions really do affect the body's cortisol-making ability, adrenal fatigue isn't among them. "There's no evidence to support that adrenal fatigue is an actual medical condition," says Dr. Mary Vouyiouklis Kellis, a staff endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic. "There's no stress connection in the sense that someone's adrenal glands will all of a sudden just stop producing cortisol because they're so inundated with emotional stress." If anything, adrenal glands are workhorses that rise to the occasion when chronic stress occurs. "The last thing in the body that's going to fatigue are your adrenal glands," says Dr. William F. Young Jr., an endocrinology clinical professor and professor of medicine in the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. "Adrenal glands are built for stress – that's what they do. Adrenal glands don't fatigue. This is made up – it's a fallacy." The idea of adrenal glands crumbling under stress is "ridiculous," Findling agrees. "In reality, if you take a person and subject them to chronic stress, the adrenal glands don't shut down at all," Findling says. "They keep making cortisol – it's a stress hormone. In fact, the adrenal glands are just like the Energizer Bunny – they just keep going. They don't stop." Home cortisol tests that allow consumers to check their own levels can be misleading, Findling says. "Some providers who make this (adrenal fatigue) diagnosis, provide patients with testing equipment for doing saliva cortisol levels throughout the day," he says. "And then, regardless of what the results are, they perpetrate this diagnosis of adrenal fatigue." Saliva cortisol is a legitimate test that's frequently used in diagnosing Cushing's syndrome, or overactive adrenal glands, Findling notes. However, he says, a practitioner pursuing an adrenal fatigue diagnosis could game the system. "What they do is: They shape a very narrow normal range, so narrow, in fact, that no normal human subject could have all their saliva cortisol (levels) within that range throughout the course of the day," he says. "Then they convince the poor patients that they have adrenal fatigue phenomena and put them on some kind of adrenal support." Loaded Supplements How do you know what you're actually getting if you buy a dietary supplement marketed for adrenal fatigue or 'adrenal support' use? To find out, researchers purchased 12 such supplements over the counter in the U.S. Laboratory tests revealed that all supplements contained a small amount of thyroid hormone and most contained at least one steroid hormone, according to the study published in the March 2018 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. "These results may highlight potential risks for hidden ingredients in unregulated supplements," the authors concluded. Supplements containing thyroid hormones or steroids can interact with a patient's prescribed medications or have other side effects. "Some people just assume they have adrenal fatigue because they looked it up online when they felt tired and they ultimately buy these over-the-counter supplements that can be very dangerous at times," Vouyiouklis Kellis says. "Some of them contain animal (ingredients), like bovine adrenal extract. That can suppress the pituitary axis. So, as a result, your body stops making its own cortisol or starts making less of it, and as a result, you can actually worsen the condition rather than make it better." Any form of steroid from outside the body, whether a prescription drug like prednisone or extract from cows' adrenal glands, "can shut off the pituitary," Vouyiouklis Kellis explains. "Because it's signaling to the pituitary like: Hey, you don't need to stimulate the adrenals to make cortisol, because this patient is taking it already. So, as a result, the body ultimately doesn't produce as much. And, so, if you rapidly withdraw that steroid or just all of a sudden decide not to take it anymore, then you can have this acute response of low cortisol." Some adrenal support products, such as herbal-only supplements, may be harmless. However, they're unlikely to relieve chronic fatigue. Fatigue: No Easy Answers If you're suffering from ongoing fatigue, it's frustrating. And you're not alone. "I have fatigue," Young Jr. says. "Go to the lobby any given day and say, 'Raise your hand if you have fatigue.' Most of the people are going to raise their hands. It's a common human symptom and people would like an easy answer for it. Usually there's not an easy answer. I think 'adrenal fatigue' is attractive because it's like: Aha, here's the answer." There aren't that many causes of endocrine-related fatigue, Young Jr. notes. "Hypothyroidism – when the thyroid gland is not working – is one." Addison's disease, or adrenal insufficiency, can also lead to fatigue among a variety of other symptoms. Established adrenal conditions – like adrenal insufficiency – need to be treated. "In adrenal insufficiency, there is an intrinsic problem in the adrenal gland's inability to produce cortisol," Vouyiouklis Kellis explains. "That can either be a primary problem in the adrenal gland or an issue with the pituitary gland not being able to stimulate the adrenal to make cortisol." Issues can arise even with necessary medications. "For example, very commonly, people are put on steroids for various reasons: allergies, ear, nose and throat problems," Vouyiouklis Kellis says. "And with the withdrawal of the steroids, they can ultimately have adrenal insufficiency, or decrease in cortisol." Opioid medications for pain also result in adrenal sufficiency, Vouyiouklis Kellis says, adding that this particular side effect is rarely discussed. People with a history of autoimmune disease can also be at higher risk for adrenal insufficiency. Common symptoms of adrenal insufficiency include: Fatigue. Weight loss. Decreased appetite. Salt cravings. Low blood pressure. Abdominal pain. Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Muscle weakness. Hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin). Irritability. Medical tests for adrenal insufficiency start with blood cortisol levels, and tests for the ACTH hormone that stimulates the pituitary gland. "If the person does not have adrenal insufficiency and they're still fatigued, it's important to get to the bottom of it," Vouyiouklis Kellis says. Untreated sleep apnea often turns out to be the actual cause, she notes. "It's very important to tease out what's going on," Vouyiouklis Kellis emphasizes. "It can be multifactorial – multiple things contributing to the patient's feeling of fatigue." The blood condition anemia – a lack of healthy red blood cells – is another potential cause. "If you are fatigued, do not treat yourself," Vouyiouklis Kellis says. "Please seek a physician or a primary care provider for evaluation, because you don't want to go misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. It's very important to rule out actual causes that would be contributing to symptoms rather than ordering supplements online or seeking an alternative route like self-treating rather than being evaluated first." SOURCES The U.S. News Health team delivers accurate information about health, nutrition and fitness, as well as in-depth medical condition guides. All of our stories rely on multiple, independent sources and experts in the field, such as medical doctors and licensed nutritionists. To learn more about how we keep our content accurate and trustworthy, read our editorial guidelines. James Findling, MD Findling is a professor of medicine and director of the Community Endocrinology Center and Clinics at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Mary Vouyiouklis Kellis, MD Vouyiouklis Kellis is a staff endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic. William F. Young Jr., MD Young Jr. is an endocrinology clinical professor and professor of medicine in the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota From https://health.usnews.com/health-care/patient-advice/articles/adrenal-fatigue-is-it-real?
  4. Thyroid cancer survival rates are 84 percent for 10 years or more if diagnosed early. Early diagnosis is crucial therefore and spotting the unusual signs could be a matter of life and death. A sign your thyroid cancer has advanced includes Cushing syndrome. What is it? What is Cushing syndrome? Cushing syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time, said the Mayo Clinic. The health site continued: “Cushing syndrome, sometimes called hypercortisolism, may be caused by the use of oral corticosteroid medication. “The condition can also occur when your body makes too much cortisol on its own. “Too much cortisol can produce some of the hallmark signs of Cushing syndrome — a fatty hump between your shoulders, a rounded face, and pink or purple stretch marks on your skin.” In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, thyroid carcinoma and Cushing’s syndrome was further investigated. The study noted: “Two cases of thyroid carcinoma and Cushing's syndrome are reported. “Both of our own cases were medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, and on reviewing the histology of five of the other cases all proved to be medullary carcinoma with identifiable amyloid in the stroma. “A consideration of the temporal relationships of the development of the carcinoma and of Cushing's syndrome suggested that in the two cases with papillary carcinoma these conditions could have been unrelated, but that in eight of the nine cases with medullary carcinoma there was evidence that thyroid carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. “Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is also probably related to this group of tumours. It is suggested that the great majority of the tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome are derived from cells of foregut origin which are endocrine in nature.” In rare cases, adrenal tumours can cause Cushing syndrome a condition arising when a tumour secretes hormones the thyroid wouldn’t normally create. Cushing syndrome associated with medullary thyroid cancer is uncommon. The syndrome is more commonly caused by the pituitary gland overproducing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or by taking oral corticosteroid medication. See a GP if you have symptoms of thyroid cancer, warns the NHS. The national health body added: “The symptoms may be caused by less serious conditions, such as an enlarged thyroid, so it's important to get them checked. “A GP will examine your neck and can organise a blood test to check how well your thyroid is working. “If they think you could have cancer or they're not sure what's causing your symptoms, you'll be referred to a hospital specialist for more tests.” Adapted from https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/1351753/thyroid-cancer-signs-symptoms-cushing-syndrome
  5. Irina Bancos, M.D., an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and Jamie J. Van Gompel, M.D., a neurosurgeon at Mayo Clinic's campus in Minnesota, discuss Mayo's multidisciplinary approach to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumors are common and often don't cause problems. But some pituitary tumors produce the hormone ACTH, which stimulates the production of another hormone (cortisol). Overproduction of cortisol can result in Cushing syndrome, with signs and symptoms such as weight gain, skin changes and fatigue. Cushing syndrome is rare but can cause significant long-term health problems. Treatment for Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor generally involves surgery to remove the tumor. Radiation therapy and occasionally adrenal surgery may be needed to treat Cushing syndrome caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors. Mayo Clinic has experience with this rare condition.
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