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Found 9 results

  1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aace.2021.10.004Get rights and content Under a Creative Commons license open access Highlights • Cushing’s Disease (CD) in pregnancy is rare, but poses many risks to the mother and fetus • Although surgery is still considered first line, this CASE highlights the successful use of metyrapone throughout pregnancy to manage CD in patients where surgery is considered high risk or low likelihood of cure • The dose of metyrapone can be titrated to a goal urinary free cortisol of < 150 ug/24 hours given the known rise in cortisol during gestation • Though no fetal adverse events have been reported, metyrapone does cross the placenta and long-term effects are unknown. ABSTRACT Background Cushing Disease (CD) in pregnancy is a rare, but serious, disease that adversely impacts maternal and fetal outcomes. As the sole use of metyrapone in the management of CD has been rarely reported, we describe our experience using it to treat a pregnant patient with CD. Case Report 34-year-old woman with hypertension who was diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent CD based on a urinary free cortisol (UFC) of 290 μg/24hr (reference 6-42μg/dL) and abnormal dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol 12.4 μg/dL) before becoming pregnant. She conceived naturally 12 weeks post-transsphenoidal surgery, and was subsequently found to have persistent disease with UFC 768μg/dL. Surgery was deemed high risk given the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery and high likelihood of residual disease. Instead, she was managed with metyrapone throughout her pregnancy and titrated to goal UFC of <150μg/24hr due to the known physiologic rise in cortisol during gestation. The patient had diet-controlled gestational diabetes, and well-controlled hypertension. She gave birth at 37 weeks gestation to a healthy baby boy, without adrenal insufficiency in the baby or mother. Discussion This CASE highlights the successful use of metyrapone throughout pregnancy to manage CD in patients where surgery is considered high risk or low likelihood of cure. While metyrapone is effective, close surveillance is required for worsening hypertension, hypokalemia, and potential adrenal insufficiency. Though no fetal adverse events have been reported, this medication crosses the placenta and long-term effects are unknown. Conclusion We describe a CASE of CD during pregnancy that was successfully treated with metyrapone. Key words Cushing disease metyrapone pregnancy cortisol INTRODUCTION Cushing disease (CD) is caused by endogenous overproduction of glucocorticoids due to hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by a pituitary adenoma. CD in pregnancy is very rare, and when it occurs, it is considered a high-risk pregnancy with many potential adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus.1 Infertility is common in CD due to cortisol and androgen excess leading to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.1 Due to the rarity of CD in pregnancy, there is little guidance in terms of treatment for this patient population. Similar to non-pregnant patients, the first-line treatment is transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection, with medical therapy as a second-line treatment option. This report presents a CASE that highlights the use of metyrapone, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, as a sole therapy in cases where surgery is deemed to be high risk and unlikely curative due to location of the tumor. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and infertility for six years presented to endocrinology for evaluation. Aside from difficulty conceiving, her only complaints were nausea and easy bruising. On exam she did not have clinical features of CD –abdominal violaceous striae, moon facies or a dorsocervical fat pad were absent. Her laboratory results revealed an elevated prolactin level (50-60ng/mL, reference range 1.4-24), an elevated ACTH level (61 pg/mL, reference range 0-46), and low FSH and LH levels (1.7mIU/mL and 1.76mIU/mL, respectively). Further testing demonstrated an elevated urinary free cortisol level (UFC) (290μg/24 hour, reference range 6-42) and her cortisol failed to suppress on a 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol 12.4μg/dL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary with and without contrast showed a T2 hyperintense, hypoenhancing lesion within the right side of the sella touching the right cavernous internal carotid artery measuring 8x8x9 mm consistent with a pituitary adenoma (Figure 1). Download : Download high-res image (247KB) Download : Download full-size image Figure 1. Caption: T1 weighted post gadolinium coronal image of the pituitary gland with a small hypoenhancing lesion within the right side of the sella. After the presumed diagnosis of CD was made, she was referred to neurosurgery for transsphenoidal resection of the adenoma, which she underwent a few months later. Intra-operatively, a white friable tumor was found, and otherwise the surgery was uneventful. Three months later, however, she was found to have a persistent 8x8x9mm hypoenhancing lesion extending laterally over the right cavernous carotid artery on MRI. The mass approximated but did not contact the right intracranial optic nerve. The pathology from resected tissue was consistent with normal pituitary tissue with staining for growth hormone (80%), ACTH (30%), prolactin (40%), follicle stimulating hormone (5%), luteinizing hormone (40%) and thyroid stimulating hormone (15%), proving the surgery to have been unsuccessful. Twelve weeks post-operatively, the patient discovered she was pregnant. At 12 weeks gestation, her UFC was 768μg/24h and two midnight salivary cortisol levels were elevated at 0.175 and 0.625μg/dL (reference <0.010-0.090). She was experiencing easy bruising and taking labetalol 400 mg twice daily for hypertension. She had gained 10 pounds by 12 weeks gestation. A second transsphenoidal surgery during pregnancy was deemed high risk, with a high likelihood of residual disease due to the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery. The decision was made to treat the patient medically with metyrapone which was started at 250 mg twice per day at 12 weeks gestation and was eventually uptitrated based on UFC levels every 3-4 weeks (goal of <150μg /24h) to 1000 mg three times per day by the time of delivery with an eventual UFC level of 120μg/24h (Figure 2) . Morning ACTH and serum cortisol levels were monitored for potential adrenal insufficiency. Download : Download high-res image (375KB) Download : Download full-size image Figure 2. Caption: This figure depicts the patient’s 24 hour urinary cortisol levels over time as well as the titration of metyrapone dosage in mg/day. Her hypertension was well controlled throughout pregnancy on labetalol with the addition of nifedipine XL 30mg daily in the second trimester. She remained normokalemic with potassium ranging from 3.8-4.1mEq/L. She was diagnosed with gestational diabetes at 24 weeks by an abnormal two-step oral glucose tolerance test, which was diet-controlled. The patient was induced at 37 weeks gestation due to cervical insufficiency with cerclage in place, and was given stress dose steroids along with metyrapone. She delivered a healthy baby boy vaginally without complications. His Apgar scores were 9 and 9 and he weighed 6 pounds and 5 ounces. At the time of delivery and one week later, the baby’s cortisol levels were normal (6 μg/dL, normal 4-20), without evidence of adrenal insufficiency. The patient’s metyrapone dose was reduced to 500mg three times a day after pregnancy and her 2 month postpartum 24 hour UFC was 42μg/24hr. The patient stopped the metyrapone on her own four months later and her UFC was found to be elevated at 272ug/24hr (normal 6-42μg/24hr). An MRI one year postpartum revealed a 10x10x9 mm adenoma in the right sella with some suprasellar extension without compression of the optic chiasm, but with abutment of the right carotid artery. Due to the persistently elevated cortisol, large size of the tumor, and potential for cure, especially if followed by radiation therapy, a second transsphenoidal surgery was recommended. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic the patient underwent a delayed surgery 1.5 years postpartum. The pathology was consistent with a pituitary adenoma that stained strongly and diffusely for ACTH and synaptophysin, only. Her postoperative day 2 cortisol was 1.1μg/dL (reference range 6.7-22.6) and hydrocortisone 20mg in the morning and 10mg in the afternoon was started. She remains on hydrocortisone replacement and went on to conceive again, one month after her second surgery. DISCUSSION We describe a patient with pre-existing CD who became pregnant and was managed successfully with metyrapone throughout her pregnancy. Although CD is rare in pregnancy, it can occur, and poses risks to both the mother and fetus.1,2 Potential maternal complications include hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, fractures and more uncommonly, cardiac failure, psychiatric disorders, infection and maternal death.1,2 There is also increased fetal morbidity including prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and less commonly CD can lead to stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death and hypoadrenalism.1,2 It is, therefore, imperative that these patients receive prompt care to control cortisol levels. The treatment of CD in pregnancy is challenging as there are no large research trials studying the efficacy and safety of medications in CD during pregnancy. Pituitary surgery is first-line recommendation and should be done late in the first trimester or in the second trimester to prevent spontaneous pregnancy loss.3 In this CASE, however, it was felt that a second surgery would be high-risk given the proximity of the tumor to the right carotid artery and possibly not curative, and thus surgery was not a feasible option. She was therefore successfully managed with medical therapy with metyrapone alone throughout her pregnancy. Metyrapone use in pregnancy has been previously reported in the literature and has been shown to be effective in reducing cortisol levels.4,5,6 Although not approved for use in pregnancy, this steroidogenesis inhibitor is the most commonly used medication to treat Cushing’s syndrome in pregnant women.3,5 Due to metyrapone’s inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxylase, there is a buildup of steroidogenesis precursors such as 11-deoxycorticosterone, which can worsen hypertension, increase frequency of preeclampsia, and cause hypokalemia.3 Metyrapone also leads to elevation of adrenal androgens, which in conjunction with accumulation of 11-deoxycorticosterone, can cause hirsutism and virilization. 8 Though the use of Cabergoline has been reported in cases with Cushing disease during pregnancy, no long term safety data is available regarding it effects on pregnancy as well as the fetus. Moreover, studies assessing the effect of cabergoline in persistent or recurrent CD show a response rate of 20-30% only in cases with mild hypercortisolism. 9 There is no consensus on how to medically treat patients with CD during pregnancy. We chose a goal UFC of <150μg/24 hours because of the physiological rise of cortisol to two to three times the upper limit of normal during pregnancy.3,7 During pregnancy, there is an increase in corticotropin-releasing hormone from the placenta, which is identical in structure to the hypothalamic form.7 This leads to increased levels of ACTH which stimulates the maternal adrenal glands to become slightly hypertrophic and accounts for the rise in serum cortisol levels in pregnancy.7 Corticosteroid-binding globulin also increases in pregnancy, along with serum free cortisol, leading to urinary free cortisol increasing to 3-fold the normal range.7 We therefore aimed to keep our patient’s urinary free cortisol approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal on our assay, to maintain normal cortisol levels for pregnancy. Close surveillance of patients is required for worsening hypertension, hypokalemia, and potential adrenal insufficiency.3 Although no fetal adverse events from metyrapone have been reported, the medication does cross the placenta, leading to the potential for fetal adrenal insufficiency, and long-term effects are unknown.3 CONCLUSION This CASE demonstrates the successful use of metyrapone alone to treat CD throughout pregnancy resulting in the birth of a healthy baby without adrenal insufficiency. These cases are particularly challenging given the lack of FDA-approved therapies and the lack of consensus on directing titration of medications and the duration of therapy. Uncited reference 4., 6.. REFERENCES: 1 T. Brue, V. Amodru, F. Castinetti MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy: solved and unsolved questions Eur J Endocrinol, 178 (6) (2018 Jun), pp. R259-R266, 10.1530/EJE-17-1058 Epub 2018 Mar 9. PMID: 29523633 View PDF CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 2 F. Caimari, E. Valassi, P. Garbayo, C. Steffensen, A. Santos, R. Corcoy, S.M. Webb Cushing's syndrome and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of published cases Endocrine, 55 (2) (2017 Feb), pp. 555-563, 10.1007/s12020-016-1117-0 Epub 2016 Oct 4. PMID: 27704478 View PDF CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 3 M.D. Bronstein, M.C. Machado, M.C. Fragoso MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Management of pregnant patients with Cushing's syndrome Eur J Endocrinol, 173 (2) (2015 Aug), pp. R85-91, 10.1530/EJE-14-1130 Epub 2015 Apr 14. PMID: 25872515 View PDF View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 4 Azzola A, Eastabrook G, Matsui D, Berberich A, Tirona RG, Gray D, Gallego P, Van Uum S. Adrenal Cushing Syndrome Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Successful Medical Management With Metyrapone. J Endocr Soc. 2020 Nov 5;5(1):bvaa167. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa167. PMID: 33305159; PMCID: PMC7712789. Google Scholar 5 W.H. Lim, D.J. Torpy, W.S. Jeffries The medical management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 168 (1) (2013 May), pp. 1-6, 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.015 Epub 2013 Jan 8. PMID: 23305861 ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 6 Gormley MJ, Hadden DR, Kennedy TL, Montgomery DA, Murnaghan GA, Sheridan B. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy--treatment with metyrapone. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1982 Mar;16(3):283-293. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.1982.tb00718.x. PMID: 7074978. Google Scholar 7 M.C. Machado, M.C.B.V. Fragoso, M.D. Bronstein Pregnancy in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 47 (2) (2018 Jun), pp. 441-449, 10.1016/j.ecl.2018.02.004 PMID: 29754643 ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar 8 Jeffcoate WJ, Rees LH, Tomlin S, Jones AE, Edwards CR, Besser GM. Metyrapone in long-term management of Cushing's disease. Br Med J. 1977 Jul 23;2(6081):215-217. doi: 10.1136/bmj.2.6081.215. PMID: 195666; PMCID: PMC1631369. Google Scholar 9 Stalldecker G, Mallea-Gil MS, Guitelman M, Alfieri A, Ballarino MC, Boero L, Chervin A, Danilowicz K, Diez S, Fainstein-Day P, García-Basavilbaso N, Glerean M, Gollan V, Katz D, Loto MG, Manavela M, Rogozinski AS, Servidio M, Vitale NM. Effects of cabergoline on pregnancy and embryo-fetal development: retrospective study on 103 pregnancies and a review of the literature. Pituitary. 2010 Dec;13(4):345-350. doi: 10.1007/s11102-010-0243-6. PMID: 20676778. Google Scholar Clinical Relevance: Cushing’s Disease (CD) in pregnancy is a rare, but serious, disease that has potential adverse effects on maternal and fetal health. Surgery is considered first line therapy, and there is little consensus on medical treatment of CD in pregnancy. This CASE demonstrates the successful use and titration of metyrapone throughout pregnancy. From https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2376060521001164
  2. Urine Tests: These involve collecting urine, usually for periods of twenty-four hours at a time. Twenty-four Hour Urine: The doctor will give you a gallon collection jug, usually with boric acid in it. The instructions are usually printed on the side. Generally, you urinate first thing in the morning, as usual. after that, you collect the rest of the urine for the next 24 hours in the jug. The directions usually tell you to refrigerate the jug. Directions for the Twenty-four Hour Urine Test Physicians have always relied upon analysis of urine specimens in order to diagnosis and treat many disease processes. Twenty-four hour urine collections are often employed to estimate the production rates of various hormones. The accuracy of test results depends entirely on the accuracy of the urine collection technique. These instructions are provided as a guide to ensure that your 24-hour urine collection is obtained in a manner that will permit reliance upon the test results. Urine samples should be collected in a large cup, urine collection hat or other container and then poured into the large bottle. Do not try to urinate directly into the bottle. Void urine prior to bowel movements in order to avoid losing urine that might normally be passed during a bowel movement. Urine collection hats can usually be purchased at medical supply stores if not provided by your physician or lab. If you should have a bowel movement while urinating the urine collection hat should keep the urine clean if used correctly. Urine samples should be collected in a large cup or other container and then poured into the large bottle. Do not try to urinate directly into the bottle. Void urine prior to bowel movements in order to avoid losing urine that might normally be passed during a bowel movement. Some patients are asked to collect more than one consecutive 24-hour urine sample. If that is the case, you should complete the first collection as instructed. Then, begin the second collection by adding any urine made in the next 24-hours to the second bottle. You should not discard any urine when starting the second or any subsequent collections. Simply change bottles at the stop and start times after adding that last sample required to complete the previous collection. The bottles for some tests contain a weak acid as a preservative. Do not discard the acid. If you accidentally get acid or urine from the bottle on your skin or clothing, rinse the effected area immediately with plenty of cold water. Collection bottles must be refrigerated. This is best accomplished by using an ice chest, cooler, or if so inclined, your refrigerator. If you forget to collect all of the urine or perform the test improperly, discard the specimen and start again on another day. If the bottle contained an acid preservative, you will need to obtain a new bottle from the laboratory or your physician's office. Otherwise, you may reuse the bottle after rinsing it with distilled water. Finally, please remember to call your physician, medical provider or nurse if you have any questions about the proper collection of a 24-hour urine sample. This Topic on the Message Boards.
  3. Osilodrostat therapy was found to be effective in improving blood pressure parameters, health-related quality of life, depression, and other signs and symptoms in patients with Cushing disease, regardless of the degree of cortisol control, according to study results presented at the 30th Annual Scientific and Clinical Congress of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (ENVISION 2021). Investigators of the LINC 3 study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02180217), a phase 3, multicenter study with a double-blind, randomized withdrawal period, sought to assess the effects of twice-daily osilodrostat (2-30 mg) on signs, symptoms, and health-related quality of life in 137 patients with Cushing disease. Study endpoints included change in various parameters from baseline to week 48, including mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) status, cardiovascular-related measures, physical features, Cushing Quality-of-Life score, and Beck Depression Inventory score. Participants were assessed every 2, 4, or 12 weeks depending on the study period, and eligible participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to withdrawal at week 24. The median age of participants was 40.0 years, and women made up 77.4% of the cohort. Of 137 participants, 132 (96%) achieved controlled mUFC at least once during the core study period. At week 24, patients with controlled or partially controlled mUFC showed improvements in blood pressure that were not seen in patients with uncontrolled mUFC; at week 48, improvement in blood pressure occurred regardless of mUFC status. Cushing Quality-of-Life and Beck Depression Inventory scores, along with other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, improved from baseline to week 24 and week 48 regardless of degree of mUFC control. Additionally, most participants reported improvements in physical features of hypercortisolism, including hirsutism, at week 24 and week 48. The researchers indicated that the high response rate with osilodrostat treatment was sustained during the 48 weeks of treatment, with 96% of patients achieving controlled mUFC levels; improvements in clinical signs, physical features, quality of life, and depression were reported even among patients without complete mUFC normalization. Disclosure: This study was sponsored by Novartis Pharma AG; however, as of July 12, 2019, osilodrostat is an asset of Recordati AG. Please see the original reference for a full list of authors’ disclosures. Visit Endocrinology Advisor‘s conference section for complete coverage from the AACE Annual Meeting 2021: ENVISION. Reference Pivonello R, Fleseriu M, Newell-Price J, et al. Effect of osilodrostat on clinical signs, physical features and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by degree of mUFC control in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD): results from the LINC 3 study. Presented at: 2021 AACE Virtual Annual Meeting, May 26-29, 2021. From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/home/conference-highlights/aace-2021/osilodrostat-improves-blood-pressure-hrqol-and-depression-in-patients-with-cushing-disease/
  4. Data from LINC3 and LINC4 provide insight into the impact of dosing titration schedules on risk of hypocortisolism-related adverse events associated with osilodrostat use in patients with Cushing's disease. Data from a pair of phase 3 studies presented at the American Academy of Clinical Endocrinology’s 30th Annual Meeting (AACE 2021) is providing insight into the effect of dose titration schedules with use of osilodrostat (Isturisa) in patients with Cushing’s disease. Presented by Maria Fleseriu, MD, of Oregon Health and Science University, the analysis of the LINC3 and LINC4 demonstrated the more gradual titration occurring in LINC4 resulted in a lower proportion of hypocortisolism-related adverse events, suggesting up-titration every 3 weeks rather than every 2 weeks could help lower event risk without compromising mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) control. “For patients with Cushing’s disease, osilodrostat should be initiated at the recommended starting dose with incremental dose increases, based on individual response/tolerability aimed at normalizing cortisol levels,” concluded investigators. With approval from the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2020 for patients not eligible for pituitary surgery or have undergone the surgery but still have the disease, osilodrostat became the first FDA-approved therapy address cortisol overproduction by blocking 11β-hydroxylase. Based on results of LINC3, data from the trial, and the subsequent LINC4 trial, provide the greatest available insight into use of the agent in this patient population. The study presented at AACE 2021 sought to assess whether slow dose up titration might affect rates of hypocortisolism-related adverse events by comparing titration schedules from both phase 3 trials. Median osilodrostat exposure was 75 (IQR, 48-117) weeks and 70 (IQR, 49-87) weeks in LINC3 and LINC4, respectively. The median time to first mUFC equal to or less than ULN was 41 (IQR, 30-42) days in LINC3 and 35 (IQR, 34-52) days in LINC4. Adverse events potentially related to hypocortisolism were more common among patients in LINC3 (51%, n=70) than LINC4 (27%, n=20). Upon analysis of adverse events, investigators found the most commonly reported type of adverse event was adrenal insufficiency, which included events of glucocorticoid deficiency, adrenocortical insufficiency, steroid withdrawal syndrome, and decreased urinary free cortisol. Results incited the majority of hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurred during the dos titration periods of each trial. In LINC3, 54 of the 70 (77%) hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurred by week 26. In comparison, 58% of hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurring in LINC4 occurred prior to week 12. Investigators noted most of events that occurred were mild or moderate and managed with dose interruption or reduction of osilodrostat or concomitant medications. This study, “Effect of Dosing and Titration of Osilodrostat on Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Cushing's Disease (CD): Results from Two Phase III Trials (LINC3 and LINC4),” was presented at AACE 2021. From https://www.endocrinologynetwork.com/view/fda-panels-votes-to-support-teplizumab-potential-for-delaying-type-1-diabetes
  5. Osilodrostat treatment was found to be associated with a rapid and sustained reduction in mean concentration of urinary free cortisol (UFC) and improved clinical symptoms in patients with Cushing’s disease, according to the results of a prospective, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study published in the Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology. Osilodrostat is an oral inhibitor of 11-β hydroxylase cytochrome P450. Adults aged 18 to 75 years of age with diagnosed persistent or recurrent Cushing’s disease were recruited between 2014 and 2017 at 66 hospitals in 19 countries. Cushing’s disease was defined by a mean UFC concentration over a 24-hour period >1.5 times greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN) and morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level above normal limits. Participants (n=137) received 30 mg osilodrostat twice daily, dose which was adjusted every 2 weeks until week 12 on the basis of mean 24-hour UFC concentration. The determined maintenance dose was continued until week 24. At week 26, participants who had achieved 24-hour UFC concentration ≤ ULN and did not need titration after week 12 were randomly assigned in an equal ratio to maintain osilodrostat treatment or were switched to a placebo for 8 weeks. This 8-week period of the study was double-blinded. During weeks 35 to 48, all patients were returned to osilodrostat treatment. In this cohort, mean age was 40.0 years (range, 19.0-70.0 years), 77% of participants were women, the average time since diagnosis was 47.2 months (interquartile range [IQR], 19.0-88.3), 88% had previous pituitary surgery, 16% had pituitary radiation therapy, and 74% had medicinal therapy. At baseline, the mean 24-hour UFC concentration was 1006±1590 nmol/24 h. At week 24, 53% of participants achieved a mean 24-hour UFC concentration ≤ULN without increases in dose after week 12 and were eligible for randomization (osilodrostat, n=36; placebo, n=35). At week 34, more patients receiving osilodrostat vs placebo maintained a complete response (86% vs 29%, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 13.7; 95% CI, 3.7-53.4; P <.0001). Improvements in cardiovascular-related metabolic parameters associated with hypercortisolism and overall measures of well-being were observed. Levels of high-density lipoprotein decreased by week 48 (-0.3 mmol/L; 95% CI, .0.3 to -0.2), mean Cushing’s quality of life score increased by 52.4% (95% CI, 32.3-72.7), and Beck Depression Inventory score decreased by 31.8% (95% CI, -44.3 to -19.3). Adverse events were hypocortisolism (51%), adverse events related with adrenal hormone precursors (42%), nausea (42%), headache (34%), fatigue (28%), and adrenal insufficiency (28%). A total of 18% of participants dropped out of the study due to adverse events. The major limitation of this study was the short withdrawal period (8 weeks) which may not have permitted to observe symptoms of hypercortisolism. “Alongside careful dose adjustments and monitoring of known risks associated with osilodrostat, our findings indicate a positive benefit– risk consideration of treatment for most patients with Cushing’s disease,” concluded the study authors. Disclosure: Multiple authors declared affiliations with industry. Please refer to the original article for a full list of disclosures. Reference Pivonello R, Fleseriu M, Newell-Price J, et al. Efficacy and safety of osilodrostat in patients with Cushing’s disease (LINC 3): a multicentre phase III study with a doubleblind, randomised withdrawal phase. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;S2213-8587(20)30240-0. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(29)30240-0 From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/home/topics/general-endocrinology/osilodrostat-sustained-reduction-mean-ufc-concentration-cushings-disease/
  6. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2003 Apr;88(4):1554-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-021518. Francesca Pecori Giraldi 1, Mirella Moro, Francesco Cavagnini, Study Group on the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis of the Italian Society of Endocrinology Affiliations PMID: 12679438 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2002-021518 Abstract Cushing's disease (CD) presents a marked female preponderance, but whether this skewed gender distribution has any relevance to the presentation and outcome of CD is not known. The aim of the present study was the comparison of clinical features, biochemical indices of hypercortisolism, and surgical outcome among male and female patients with CD. The study population comprised 280 patients with CD (233 females, 47 males) collected by the Italian multicentre study. Epidemiological data, frequency of clinical signs and symptoms, urinary free cortisol (UFC), plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, responses to dynamic testing, and surgical outcome were compared in female and male patients. Male patients with CD presented at a younger age, compared with females (30.5 +/- 1.93 vs. 37.1 +/- 0.86 yr, P < 0.01), with higher UFC and ACTH levels (434.1 +/- 51.96 vs. 342.1 +/- 21.01% upper limit of the normal range for UFC, P < 0.05; 163.9 +/- 22.92 vs. 117.7 +/- 9.59% upper limit of the normal range for ACTH, P < 0.05). No difference in ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH, gradient at inferior petrosal sinus sampling, and cortisol inhibition after low-dose dexamethasone was recorded between sexes. In contrast, the sensitivity of the high-dose dexamethasone test was significantly lower in male than in female patients. Of particular interest, symptoms indicative of hypercatabolic state were more frequent in male patients; indeed, males presented a higher prevalence of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, striae, and nephrolitiasis. Conversely, no symptom was more frequent in female patients with CD. Patients with myopathy, hypokalemia, and purple striae presented significantly higher UFC levels, compared with patients without these symptoms. Lastly, in male patients, pituitary imaging was more frequently negative and immediate and late surgical outcome less favorable. In conclusion, CD appeared at a younger age and with a more severe clinical presentation in males, compared with females, together with more pronounced elevation of cortisol and ACTH levels. Furthermore, high-dose dexamethasone suppression test and pituitary imaging were less reliable in detecting the adenoma in male patients, further burdening the differential diagnosis with ectopic ACTH secretion. Lastly, the postsurgical course of the disease carried a worse prognosis in males. Altogether, these findings depict a different pattern for CD in males and females. From https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12679438/
  7. Metyrapone treatments helped patients with Cushing syndrome reach normal, urinary-free cortisol levels in the short-term and also had long-term benefits, according to a study published in Endocrine. This observational, longitudinal study evaluated the effects of the 11β -hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone on adult patients with Cushing syndrome. Urinary-free cortisol and late-night salivary cortisol levels were evaluated in 31 patients who were already treated with metyrapone to monitor cortisol normalization and rhythm. The average length of metyrapone treatment was 9 months, and 6 patients had 24 months of treatment. After 1 month of treatment, the mean urinary-free cortisol was reduced from baseline by 67% and mean late-night salivary cortisol level decreased by 57%. Analyzing only patients with severe hypercortisolism, after 1 month of treatment, the mean urinary-free cortisol decreased by 86% and the mean late-night salivary cortisol level decreased 80%. After 3 months, normalization of the mean urinary-free cortisol was established in 68% of patients. Mean late-night salivary cortisol levels took longer to decrease, especially in severe and very severe hypercortisolism, which could take 6 months to drop. Treatment was more successful at normalizing cortisol excretion (70%) than cortisol rhythm (37%). Nausea, abdominal pain, and dizziness were the most common adverse events, but no severe adverse event was reported. Future research is needed to evaluate a larger cohort with randomized dosages and stricter inclusion criteria to evaluate metyrapone's effects on cortisol further. Study researchers conclude that metyrapone was successful and safe in lowering urinary-free cortisol after just 1 month of treatment and controlling long-term levels in patients with Cushing syndrome. This study was supported by Novartis. Reference Ceccato F, Zilio M, Barbot M, et al. Metyrapone treatment in Cushing's syndrome: a real-life study [published online July 16, 2018]. Endocrine. doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1675-4 From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/general-endocrinology/metyrapone-cushing-syndrome/article/786716/
  8. Measuring cortisol levels in saliva multiple times a day is a convenient and useful way to determine the best course of treatment for patients with Cushing’s syndrome, a preliminary study shows. The research, “Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations,” appeared in the journal Frontiers of Endocrinology. Prompt and effective treatment for hypercortisolism — the excessive amount of cortisol in the blood — is essential to lowering the risk of Cushing’s-associated conditions, including infections, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Steroid hormone inhibitors, such as HRA Pharma’s Metopirone (metyrapone), have been used significantly in Cushing’s syndrome patients. These therapies not only suppress cortisol levels, but also avoid adrenal insufficiency (where not enough cortisol is produced) and restore the circadian rhythm, which is disrupted in Cushing’s patients. However, effective medical treatment requires monitoring cortisol activity throughout the day. Salivary measurements of cortisol are a well-known method for diagnosing and predicting the risk of recurrence of Cushing’s syndrome. The method is convenient for patients and can be done in outpatient clinics. However, the medical field lacks data on whether measuring cortisol in saliva works for regulating treatment. Researchers analyzed the effectiveness of salivary cortisol measurements for determining the best dosage and treatment timing of Cushing’s patients with Metopirone. The study included six patients, three with cortisol-secreting masses in the adrenal glands and and three with ACTH (or adrenocorticotropin)-secreting adenomas in the pituitary glands, taking Metopirone. Investigators collected samples before and during treatment to assess morning serum cortisol and urinary free cortisol (UFC). Patients also had salivary cortisol assessments five times throughout the day. Saliva samples were collected at 6 a.m. (wake-up time), 8 a.m. (before breakfast), noon (before lunch), 6 p.m. (before dinner), and 10 p.m. (before sleep). Other studies have used UFC assessments to monitor treatment. However, the inability of this parameter to reflect changes in diurnal cortisol requires alternative approaches. Results showed that although UFC was normalized in five out of six patients, multiple salivary cortisol measurements showed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. Whereas patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma showed elevated cortisol levels throughout the day, those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma revealed increased levels mainly in the morning. This finding indicates that “the significance of elevated morning cortisol levels is different depending on the disease etiology,” the researchers wrote. In a prospective case study to better assess the effectiveness of performing multiple salivary cortisol assessments, the research team analyzed one of the participants who had excessive cortisol production that was not controlled with four daily doses of Metoripone (a daily total of 2,250 mg). Results revealed that cortisol levels increased before each dosage. After the patient’s treatment regimen was changed to a 2,500 mg dose divided into five daily administrations, researchers observed a significant improvement in the diurnal cortisol pattern, as well as in UFC levels. Subsequent analysis revealed that performing multiple salivary cortisol measurements helps with a more precise assessment of excess cortisol than analyzing UFC levels, or performing a unique midnight salivary cortisol collection, the researchers said. Although more studies are required, the results “suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful tool to visualize the diurnal cortisol rhythm and to determine the dose and timing of metyrapone [Metopirone] during the treatment in patients with [Cushing’s syndrome],” the researchers wrote. Future studies should include a larger sample size, evaluate changes over a longer term, use a standardized protocol for treatment dosing and timing, and evaluate changes in a patient’s quality of life, the investigators said. From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/02/15/multiple-saliva-cortisol-checks-cushings-metyrapone-study/
  9. "As a potential solution to the limitations of these tests, hair cortisol has been increasingly studied as an additional means to diagnose patients with Cushing Syndrome. Much like hemoglobin A1C is a longitudinal marker of blood glucose levels, hair cortisol can be a measure of the body's glucocorticoid levels over the previous several weeks to months." Read more at https://cushieblog.com/2017/02/09/hair-test-for-cushing-syndrome/
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